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APA References

 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

References within a work to articles, books, and other publications are made according to the author–date system as described in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.

The author–date system has two components:

  • abbreviated, parenthetical references in running text and in tables and figures; and
  • a corresponding list of complete references.

The following sections illustrate and comment on essential features of the components of the author–date system. For a full description, see the APA Publication Manual.

REFERENCE CITATIONS IN RUNNING TEXT 

References in running text briefly identify works, in parentheses, using an author's name, the year of the work being cited, and a page reference, or some combination of this information.

Full citations of abbreviated references are given in an alphabetical list of references at the end of article, paper, chapter, or book. If references are listed at the end of a chapter, they will also be listed at the end of the book. The list of references at the end of the book is a compilation of all chapter references.

References in tables and figures (e.g., source lines) are cited in similar fashion.

Note: This is a variation on the recommended APA style.

Examples of running-text references are set out below, followed by general comments on their form.

It has been noted (Smith, 1998) ...
It has been noted (Smith, 1998, p. 1) ...
Smith (1998, p. 1) has noted ...
In 1998, Smith (p. 1) noted ...
It has been noted (Smith, 1998, pp. 102–113; Jones, 1997) ...
It has been noted (Smith, 1998a, 1998b) ...
It has been noted (Smith, 1998a; Smith, 1998b, pp. 102–113; Jones, 1997) ..
It has been noted (Smith & Jones, 1997) ...
As Smith and Jones (1997) have noted ...
Smith, Jones, Davis, and Baker (1996) have noted ... [FIRST MENTION]
Smith et al. (1996) have noted ... [SUBSEQUENT MENTIONS]
Sources: Smith (1998, p. 1); Jones (1997, p. 5); Smith and Jones (1997).

General Comments

Parenthetical references contain the author(s) name(s), the year of publication, and the page(s), separated by commas, or some combination of this information.

Authors are identified by last names only.

Multiple references in one set of parentheses are separated by semicolons.

Page references are preceded by "p." or "pp."

Comments on In-Text References to Multiple Authors

References to a work with two authors always include both names.

References to a work with three to five authors include all names in the first instance. Names are separated by commas and the final name is preceded by an ampersand. Subsequent references include only the first name, followed by "et al."

References to a work with six or more authors, in all instances, use only the first author name, followed by "et al."

REFERENCE LISTS 

General comments about the forms of citations are given first, followed by examples of and comments about citations for journal articles, books, book chapters (or articles), and other periodical articles. Citations of Internet sources, cases, and statutes are then discussed.

1. General Comments 

Author names are always reversed.

First names of authors are always given as initials and there is no space between initials.

Note: This is a variation on the recommended APA style.

Author names are separated by commas and conclude with a period; the final author name is preceded by an ampersand.

The year of publication is in parentheses, followed by a period.

Inclusive page numbers are not shortened.

Citations do not include pinpoint references.

Corporate and inessential terms are omitted from publishers' names: "Publishers," "Co.," "Inc.," "Books," etc.

Exception: Retain "Press."

2. Journal Article 

Author, A. (year). Article title: The subtitle. Title of Journal, xx, xxx–xxx.
Author, A., & Author, B.B. (year). Article title: The subtitle. Title of Journal, xx(x), xxx–xxx.
Author, A., Author, B.B., & Author, C. (year). Article title: The subtitle. Title of Journal, xx, xxx–xxx.

Comments

The article title is roman, is not enclosed in quotation marks, and is followed by a period.

The article title has an initial capital letter. All other words (aside from proper nouns) are lowercase, except for the first letter following a caesura (e.g., a colon or an em dash).

The periodical title is italic and upper- and lowercase, followed by a comma.

The volume number of the periodical is italic and followed by a comma.

If an issue number is included, it is enclosed in parentheses immediately following the volume number, and is followed by a comma.

The inclusive pages of the article conclude the citation.

3. Book 

Author, A. (year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Author, A., & Author, B.B. (Eds.). (year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Author, A., & Author, B.B. (Eds.). (year). Title of book: Vol. x. Title of volume. Location: Publisher.
Author, A., & Author, B.B. (Eds.). (year). Title of book (Rev. ed.). Location: Publisher.

Comments

If the author is the editor of the book, the abbreviation "Ed." (plural "Eds.") follows the author's name in parentheses, followed by a period.

The book title is italic and is followed by a period.

The book title has an initial capital letter. All other words (aside from proper nouns) are lowercase, except for the first letter following a caesura (e.g., a colon or an em dash).

If the book is in more than one volume, the book title is followed by a colon, which is followed by "Vol." and the volume number, followed by a period. The title of the volume then is given, followed by a period.

If the book is not the first or only edition, the title of the book is followed by edition information in parentheses, then followed by a period.

The location of publication is followed by a colon.

Omit the jurisdiction of the location of publication (province, state, or country) where the jurisdiction is well known or inferable from the publisher's name. (For examples of publisher's names with or without locations, see Major Publishers.)

Note: This is a variation on the recommended APA style.

The publisher's name is followed by a period.

4. Book Chapter 

Author, A. (year). Chapter title. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). Location: Publisher.
Author, A. (year). Chapter title. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book: Vol. x. Title of volume (4th ed., pp. xxx–xxx). Location: Publisher.

Comments

The chapter title is roman and is followed by a period.

The chapter title has an initial capital letter. All other words (aside from proper nouns) are lowercase, except for the first letter following a caesura (e.g., a colon or an em dash).

The book title is preceded by "In" and the name(s) of the editor(s).

Editor names are not reversed and are separated by commas; the final editor name is preceded by an ampersand. The abbreviation "Ed." (or "Eds.") follows the (last) editor's name, is enclosed in parentheses, and is followed by a comma.

The book title is followed by the inclusive page range of the chapter in parentheses, followed by a period.

If the book is not the first or only edition, the title of the book is followed by edition information in the same parentheses as contain the page ranges. The edition information is separated from the inclusive page ranges by a comma.

5. Newspaper or Periodical Article 

Article title. (year, Month day). Title of Newspaper, p. xx.
Author, A. (year, Month day). Article title. Title of Newspaper, pp. Xa, Xd.
Author, A., & Author, B.B. (year, Season/Period). Article title: The article subtitle. Title of Magazine, xx, pp. xxx–xxx.

Comments

If no author name is given, the citation begins with the article title, followed by the date. In running-text references, the title of the article is given for the parenthetical citation.

This was suggested recently ("The Article Title," 1998).

The year of publication, followed by the date or the season/period of publication, is in parentheses, followed by a period.

The volume number of the periodical (if applicable) is italic and followed by a comma.

If the article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, separated by commas.

6. Internet Sources 

For full details on APA style for Internet and electronic sources, see the APA Style website.

Author, A.A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from [URL]
Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (year[, Month day]). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx–xxx. Retrieved from [URL]
Emond Publishing. (2015). APA references. In Emond Style Guide. Retrieved from http://style.emond.ca/references/apa-references
National Park Service. (n.d.). What is Beringia? http://www.nps.gov/akso/beringia/beringia
http://www.emond.ca
http://www.emond.ca/introtolaw
http://www.emond.ca/books/375-8
http://www.emond.ca/introduction-to-law-in-canada.html

LEGAL CITATIONS IN APA 

Legal citations follow McGill style. However, because APA uses periods in pinpoint abbreviations (p., vol., etc.), the pinpoint references that would normally not have a period do take a period when the text is in APA style (s., para., etc.).

Legislation

[running text]
The Criminal Code contains a few other relevant provisions, including the duty to assist a police officer (in s. 129(b)) and the duty to protect people from falling accidents where the accused has made an opening in ice or excavated a hole (s. 263).
  [reference list entry]
Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46.

Cases

[running text]
The nurse testified that the wound in Robbie’s chest was round and “sufficiently large to be able to put four to five centimetres of [her] little finger into it” (R v Dicker, 2013, paras. 155–156).
  [reference list entry]
R v Dicker (2013), 280 CRR (2d) 68 (Nfld Prov Ct).
    [running text]
When convicting the accused of first-degree murder, the trial judge noted that a murder is “planned and deliberate” when it is “considered, not impulsive” (R v Banwait, 2010, pp. 40–41).
[reference list entry]
R v Banwait, 2010 ONCA 869, 265 CCC (3d) 201.

ABBREVIATIONS IN REFERENCE LISTS 

chap. chapter
ed. edition
Rev. ed. revised edition
2nd ed. second edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
Trans. Translator(s)
n.d. no date
p. (pp.) page (pages)
Vol. Volume (as in Volume 4)
vols. volumes (as in 4 volumes)
No. Number
Pt. Part
Tech. Rep. Technical Report
Suppl. Supplement (but "Supp." for statutes)