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Chicago References

 

References within a work to articles, books, and other publications are made according to the author–date system as described in chapters 14 and 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition ("Chicago").

GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The author–date system has two components:

  • abbreviated, parenthetical references in running text and in tables and figures; and
  • a corresponding list of complete references.

The following sections illustrate and comment on essential features of the components of the author–date system. For a full description, see Chicago.

REFERENCE CITATIONS IN RUNNING TEXT 

References in running text briefly identify works, in parentheses, using an author's name, the year of the work being cited, and a page reference, or some combination of this information.

Full citations of abbreviated references are given in an alphabetical list of references at the end of article, paper, chapter, or book. If references are listed at the end of a chapter, they may also be listed at the end of the book, in a compilation of all chapter references.

References in tables and figures (e.g., source lines) are cited in similar fashion.

Examples of running-text references are set out below.

It has been noted (Smith 1998) ...
It has been noted (Smith 1998, 1) ...
Smith (1998, 1) has noted ...
In 1998, Smith (1) noted ...
It has been noted (Smith 1998, 102-113; Jones 1997) ...
It has been noted (Smith 1998a; Smith 1998b, 102-113; Jones 1997) ..
It has been noted (Smith and Jones 1997) ...
As Smith and Jones (1997) have noted ...
Smith, Jones, Davis, and Baker (1996) have noted ... [FIRST MENTION]
Smith et al. (1996) have noted ... [SUBSEQUENT MENTIONS]
Sources: Smith 1998; Jones 1997; Smith and Jones 1997.

General Comments

Parenthetical references contain the author(s) name(s), the year of publication, and the page(s), or some combination of this information. A comma separates the year of publication and the page(s).

Authors are identified by last names only.

Multiple references in one set of parentheses are separated by semicolons.

Page references are cited simply as numbers. Paragraph references are preceded by "para." or "paras."

Comments on Parenthetical References to Multiple Authors

In parenthetical references to a work with two or three authors, all author names are listed in the reference.

In parenthetical references to a work with two authors, the second name is preceded by "and."

In parenthetical references to a work with three authors, the names are separated by commas and the final name is preceded by "and."

In parenthetical references to a work with four or more authors, the first author name is given, followed by "et al."

Comments on Running-Text References to Multiple Authors

In running-text references to a work with two or three authors, all author names are always listed in the running-text reference.

In running-text references to a work with four or more authors, all author names are given in the first mention; in subsequent mentions, only the first author name is given, followed by "et al."

REFERENCE LISTS 

General comments about the forms of citations are given first, followed by examples of and comments about citations for journal articles, books, book chapters (or articles), and other periodical articles.

1. General Comments 

The first author name is reversed (last name first, first name or initials second); subsequent author names are not reversed.

First names of authors may be given as names or initials (or a combination). Where initials predominate, names are better given as initials.

There is no space between initials.

Note: This is a variation on the recommended Chicago style.

Author names are separated by commas and conclude with a period; the final author name is preceded by "and."

The year of publication is not enclosed in parentheses and is followed by a period.

Citations do not include pinpoint references.

2. Journal Article 

Author, A. Year. Article title: The subtitle. Title of Journal xx: xxx-xxx.
Author, A., B.B. Author, and C. Author. Year. Article title: The subtitle. Title of Journal xx (Month): xxx-xxx.

Comments

The article title is roman, is not enclosed in quotation marks, and is followed by a period.

The article title has an initial capital letter. All other words (aside from proper nouns) are lowercase, except for the first letter following a caesura (e.g., a colon or an em dash).

The periodical title is italic and upper- and lowercase.

The volume number of the periodical is roman and may be followed by the issue number or month/season in parentheses, followed by a colon. A space separates the volume number and parenthetical issue information. A space always follows the colon.

Note: This is a variation on the recommended Chicago style.

The inclusive pages of the article conclude the citation.

3. Book 

Author, A. Year. Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Author, A., and B.B. Author, eds. Year. Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Author, A., and B.B. Author, eds. Year. Title of book, vol. x, Title of volume. Location: Publisher.
Author, A., and B.B. Author, eds. Year. Title of book, rev. ed. Location: Publisher.

Comments

If the author is the editor of the book, the abbreviation "ed." (plural "eds.") follows the author's name, preceded by a comma.

The book title is italic and is followed by a period.

The book title has an initial capital letter. All other words (aside from proper nouns) are lowercase, except for the first letter following a caesura (e.g., a colon or an em dash).

If the book is in more than one volume, the book title is followed by a comma, which is followed by "vol." and the volume number, followed by a comma. The title of the volume then is given, followed by a period.

If the book is not the first or only edition, the title of the book is followed by a comma and the edition information, then followed by a period.

The location of publication is followed by a colon.

The publisher's name is followed by a period.

4. Book Chapter 

Author, A. Year. Chapter title. In Title of book, 2nd ed., eds. A. Editor, B. Editor, and C. Editor, xxx-xxx. Location: Publisher.

Comments

The chapter title is roman and is followed by a period.

The chapter title has an initial capital letter. All other words (aside from proper nouns) are lowercase, except for the first letter following a caesura (e.g., a colon or an em dash).

The book title is preceded by "In" and is followed by a comma, "ed." or "eds.," and the name(s) of the editor(s).

Editor names are not reversed and are separated by commas; the final name is preceded by "and" and followed by a comma and either the chapter number or inclusive page range. Where chapter or page information is not provided, the title and editor information is followed by a period.

The chapter number or the inclusive page range of the chapter is followed by a period.

If the book is not the first or only edition, the title of the book is followed by a comma, the edition information, and a comma.

5. Newspaper or Periodical Article 

Title of Newspaper. Year. Article title. Month day[, edition].
Author, A. Year. Article title. Title of Newspaper, Month day[, edition, section].
Author, A., and B.B. Author. Year. Article title: The article subtitle. Title of Magazine, Season/Period.

Comments

If no author name is given, the citation begins with the title of the newspaper or periodical, followed by the date. In running-text references, the title of the newspaper or periodical is given for the parenthetical citation.

This was suggested recently (Globe and Mail, 2011).

The year of publication is followed by a period.

The article title has an initial capital letter. All other words (aside from proper nouns) are lowercase, except for the first letter following a caesura (e.g., a colon or an em dash). The article title is followed by a period.

The periodical title is italic and upper- and lowercase, and is followed by a comma and the date (month and day) or season or period. Page numbers are not included, but edition information (e.g., "national edition") may be included.

6. Internet Sources 

Author, A. Year. Article title. Title of Publication, Month day[, edition, section]. source.
Author, A.A. Year. Title of work. source.
Author, A., and B.B. Author. Year. Article title: The article subtitle. Title of Publication, Season/Period. source (accessed Month day, year).

Comments

The form of citations preceding the online source information is the same as that for other, similar citations.

Include retrieval date only where the information is provided by the author. Do not add a retrieval date if none is provided. The retrieval date is enclosed in parentheses following the source URL; the date is preceded by "accessed."

The source URL is not abbreviated. All elements, including the hypertext protocol (e.g., http://), trailing slashes, and file extensions, are included.

http://www.emond.ca
http://www.cbc.ca/news/
http://style.emond.ca/references/chicago-references#internet

The source URL is followed by a period.

7. Cases 

Cases are cited by case name and case citation. Case names are italic. The case citation reference is given in the generic statutory citation form.

In-text references include the case name and the year of report. Frequent discussion of a case can omit the year of report after first mention. Pinpoint references (either page or paragraph) can be included with the parenthetical year of report.

Reference Lists

Case Name, Case citation.
R v. Smith, [1990] 2 SCR 3, 15 DLR (4th) 89.
R v. Smith, [1975] 2 SCR 135; aff'g. (1974), 21 DLR (4th) 766 (BCCA).
Smith v. Jones, 826 SW 2d 201 (Tex. Ct. App. 1992).

In-Text References

The courts have addressed this issues a number of times. In R v. Smith (1990), for example ...

8. Statutes 

Statutes are cited by title and statutory reference in generic statutory citation format. Statute titles are italic. Notice of amendment is included as appropriate.

In-text references include the title of the statute and the date of enactment. Frequent discussion of a statute can omit the date of enactment after first mention. Section references can be included with the parenthetical date of enactment.

Reference Lists

Title of Statute, Statutory reference[, as amended].
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Part I of the Constitution Act, 1982, RSC 1985, app. II, no. 44.
Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c. C-46, as amended.
Declarations of Death Act, 2002, SO 2002, c. 14.
Income Tax Act, RSC 1985, c. 1 (5th Supp.), as amended.

In-Text References

A number of statutes permit this. Under the Income Tax Act (1985), for example ...
Sections 494 and 495 of the Criminal Code (1985) set out the situations in which a person may be arrested without warrant. Under s. 494, "[a]ny one may arrest without warrant ... a person whom he finds committing an indictable offence." The Criminal Code also provides that a "peace officer" may arrest without warrant ...

ABBREVIATIONS IN REFERENCE LISTS 

chap. chapter
ed., eds. editor(s), edition
rev. ed. revised edition
2nd ed. second edition
trans. translator(s)
n.d. no date
vol., vols. volume
no. number