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Our spelling style is based on the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, 2nd edition [COD], and our abbreviation style is based on the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation, 8th edition [McGill]. Exceptions to both are noted.

 

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3D

9/11 (September 11, 2001)

911 call

 

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A

abettor

Aboriginal (n., adj.) — “Indigenous” is preferred, but use “Aboriginal” in some situations, such as when there’s reference to a specific title (of a journal, book, group, etc.) or certain legal docs — the Constitution uses “Aboriginal peoples,” so Aboriginal title and rights case law still uses that terminology (“Aboriginal rights,” etc.)

above ground (n.), aboveground (adj., adv.)

access (v.) (use is acceptable, particularly in technical contexts)

accused (sing., pl.)

acknowledgment

acquiror

Act (short for Income Tax Act, etc.) (see also legislation)

actus reus (guilty act)

ad hoc (n., adj.)

adducible

adjusted cost base (n., adj.)

administration, the Clinton administration

ADR (alternative dispute resolution)

advertise

adviser, advisory

affect (v.) (influence — not effect (q.v.))

a fortiori (conclusively; with stronger reason)

afterward

afterword (part of a book)

agreed-upon

Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund

all right

alternative dispute resolution (ADR)

a.m. — ante meridiem (before noon)

amicus curiae, amicus (friend of the court)

AMT (alternative minimum tax)

analyze

anglophone

annul, annulment

anti — anti-discrimination, anti-establishment, anti-social, antitrust

Anton Piller (order; provides the right to search premises and seize evidence without prior warning)

a posteriori (reasoning from effect to cause; based on experience)

appellant (in styles of cause, the name preceding "v")

appendixes

a priori (reasoning from cause to effect; from assumed principles)

Arabic numeral

the Arctic, the Canadian Arctic, arctic climate

arm's length (adv.), arm's-length (adj.)

article (part of journal or newsletter; not part of book)

Asian American, Asian Canadian (n., adj.)

assure (tell confidently — not ensure (q.v.))

attorney (lawyer; only in US contexts)

attorney(s) general, Attorney General Smith

audiotape, audiovisual

axe

 

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B

back up (v.), backup (n., adj.)

backbench, backbencher

backward

bad faith (n.), bad-faith (adj.)

battered woman syndrome

bawdy house (n.), bawdy-house (adj.)

BC — Before Christ; e.g., 10,000 BC (deprecated; BCE preferred (q.v.))

BCE — Before Common Era (preferred to BC)

behaviour, behavioural, behaviouralism

benefited, benefiting

biased

black (n., adj.)

Black American, Black Canadian (n., adj.)

blue-collar (adj.)

blue paper, the Finance blue paper

Bloc Québécois, Bloc Québécois’ (poss.)

BNA Act (British North America Act)

board, the Landlord and Tenant Board

boldface

bona fide (rom.) (in good faith; without deception; real)

bona fides (credentials)

bookkeeping

bottom line (n.), bottom-line (adj.)

branch, the Tax Policy Branch

brand name (n.), brand-name (adj.)

break and enter (v.), break-and-enter (n.)

break even (v.), break-even (adj.)

break up (v.), breakup (n., adj.)

broadband (n., adj.)

build up (v.), buildup (n., adj.)

business — business person, business people, businesslike

by — by-law, bypass, byproduct

by-law (LSUC) — the By-Laws, By-Law 1, a by-law, the by-law; in pinpoint citations, By-Law 1 contra McGill

 

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C

°C (degree Celsius: e.g., 30 °C)

c (chapter of an act: e.g., c 2)

ch (chapter of a book; in references, ch 2

ca. — circa (about)

Cabinet

caesarean section

Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) (the customs arm of former Canada Customs and Revenue Agency [CCRA])

Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) (replacing Canada Customs and Revenue Agency [CCRA] Dec 12, 2003)

CAP (Canada Assistance Plan)

careful parent (n.), careful-parent (adj.)

carry back (v.), carryback (n., adj.)

carry forward (v.), carryforward (n., adj.)

carry over (v.), carryover (n., adj.)

carve out (v.), carveout (adj.)

casebook

case by case, case-by-case (adj.)

case law

cash flow (n., adj.)

Catch-22 (n., adj.)

catchline

CBSA (Canada Border Services Agency)

Cdn$ (Canadian dollars, with dollar amount: e.g., Cdn$1.49)

CE — Common Era (preferred to AD)

cellmate

cellphone

Celsius (preferred to centigrade)

centre, centred (takes preposition "on")

centrepiece

cfconfer (compare) COD: cf.

chair (preferred to chairperson, chairman, or chairwoman)

chap. (chapter: used only in APA references)

Chapter(s) (of a book) — internal references are capitalized (e.g., Chapter 2, Decision-Makers; Chapters 2 and 3); external references are lowercase (e.g., "discussed by Jones in chapter 4 of her monograph")

checklist

cheque

chief justice — Chief Justice Smith, the chief justice, Smith CJ

child care (n.), childcare (adj.)

choice of law (n., adj.)

church [building]

Church [government] (Roman Catholic Church, Anglican Church, the Church)

CICA (Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants)

circa — about (abbreviated "ca.")

civil law (n., adj.)

CJ (chief justice) — preferred to CJC (chief justice of Canada)

classmate

clean up (v.), cleanup (n., adj.)

clearcut (adj., n., v.)

clerk of the Privy Council

co — co-author, co-chair, coed, co-editor, coeducational, coexist, co-op [as in food or housing co-operative], cooperate, coordinate, co-owner

coattail

Code (short for Criminal Code, Internal Revenue Code, etc.) (see also legislation)

cognizant

collectible

colour

combatted

commingle

commission, the Royal Commission on Taxation, the royal commission, the Carter commission

common law (n., adj.)

common sense (n.), commonsense (adj.), commonsensical

commonplace (n., adj.)

communiqué

compare to (liken; draw analogy or parallel)

compare with (examine to find likenesses and differences)

compel, compellable

Confederation (Canadian, of 1867)

conflict of law (n., adj.)

Congress, congressional

Constitution — the Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly the British North America Act (BNA Act)), the Constitution Act, 1982, the Constitution, the US Constitution

continued — abbreviated "cont." (in tables)

contra proferentem (against the offeror, interpretation against the drafter)

contract out, contracting out (v.), contracting-out (adj.)

convenor

convention — see legislation

cooperate, cooperation but housing co-operative

coordinate, coordination

copy edit (n.), copyediting (n., adj.), copy-edit (v.), copy-edited (adj.), copy editor

Correctional Service of Canada, the CSC

cost–benefit (n., adj.) (with en dash)

cost-effective

councillor (in government/administrative contexts)

counsel (sing., pl.)

counsellor (in legal contexts)

counselling

counter — counterargument, counterproductive

countrywide

court — the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the Court of Queen's Bench, the court (whether general or specific)

cover up (v.), coverup (n., adj.)

CPI (consumer price index)

CPP (Canada Pension Plan)

CRA (Canada Revenue Agency)

creditworthy, creditworthiness

criss-cross

criticize

cross — cross-border (adj.), cross-reference (n., v.) (as a v., preferred to cross-refer), cross-section (n.)

Crown

currency — Cdn$10, US$10

curricula

custom-made

Customs (the government agency; the border checkpoint)

cyberspace

czar

 

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D

database

dates, figures — use cardinal figures, not ordinals (e.g., May 1, June 22)

dates, McGill style — in references, "day month year"; in running text, "month day, year" and, especially, "month day"

datum (sing.), data (pl.)

daycare (n., adj.)

day to day (n.), day-to-day (adj.)

daylight

de facto (rom.) (in fact)

debatable

decision-maker

decision-making (n., adj.)

debt holder

deductible

deep-seated (adj.)

defence

defendant

degree (angle: 45°; temperature with implicit unit: 30°; temperature with explicit unit: 30 °C)

Department of Finance, the department, the departments of Labour and Finance

dependant (n.), dependent (adj.)

different from (generally preferred to different than)

directors' and officers' insurance

disc (compact, vertebral cartilage), disk (computer)

discernible

dispel

dispensable

down payment

Dr, Drs COD: Dr., Drs.

draft

Driedger (Elmer A Driedger, The Construction of Statutes, 1974)

driver's licence, driver's licences

drop out (v.), dropout (n., adj.)

due diligence defence

duty-free

 

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E

e.g. — exempli gratia (for example) (used in footnotes, tabular matter, confined spaces; takes trailing comma but no preceding or trailing comma in "See e.g. [source]")

EAC (Editors' Association of Canada; Employers' Advocacy Council)

east — east, the East, Eastern Canada, the East Coast, the east coast fisheries, Eastern Europe, Easterners

e-commerce — capitalized "E-Commerce" in headings and titles

education system, educational program

effect (achieve — not affect (q.v.))

eldercare (n., adj.)

El(l)iot(t) — T.S. Eliot, Borden & Elliot, Pierre Elliott Trudeau, Stikeman & Elliott, Elliot Lake

email (electronic mail)

embedded (preferred to imbedded)

endeavour

enforceable

English (n.), English Canadian (n., adj.), English-language (adj.)

enroll, enrollment

ensure (make sure — not assure (q.v.) or insure (q.v.))

EPF (established programs financing)

EPS (encapsulated PostScript

equalled

ergo (therefore)

ESA (Employment Standards Act)

established programs financing (EPF)

et al. — et alii (and others)

Eurocentric, Eurodollar, the euro

European Union (n.), EU (n., adj.) (spell out noun at first instance)

ex — ex-partner, ex-wife

exchangeable

excludable

ex curia (out of court)

ex officio (by virtue of an office)

ex post facto (from what is done afterward)

exploitive (preferred to exploitative)

extra — extracurricular, extrajudicial, extralegal, extramural, extramarital, extra-organizational, extraterritorial

 

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F

°F (degree Fahrenheit: e.g., 90 °F)

facade

face to face (n.), face-to-face (adj.)

fact-finder (n.), fact-finding (n., adj.)

factum (sing.), factums or facta (pl. — facta preferred in legal contexts)

the Far East, the Far North

far — far-fetched, far-reaching, far-sighted

farther (used of literal distance: e.g., "she is farther up the road than he is")

favourable

FEL (future economic loss)

fetus

ff (folios following; and the following pages: e.g., at 37ff) COD: ff.

fibre, fibreglass

Figure (e.g., Figure 2.1)

fine-tune

first-degree murder contra Criminal Code

first-hand

First Nation(s) (n., adj.)

First World War

flow through (v.), flowthrough (n., adj.)

focused, focusing

follow up (v.), follow-up (n., adj.)

foot (ft)

forceful (powerful — not forcible (q.v.))

forcible (done by force — not forceful (q.v.))

forego (precede — not forgo (q.v.))

Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (formerly Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade)

foreword (part of a book — not forward (q.v.)) (written by someone other than the author(s); signed; appears before the preface)

for example (preferred to for instance)

forgivable

forgo (do without — not forego (q.v.))

foreign — foreign-owned, foreign-controlled, foreign-source income

formulas

forum conveniens (the appropriate court or forum)

forum non conveniens (not the appropriate court or forum)

forums (also fora, esp. in legal contexts)

forward (direction of movement — not foreword (q.v.))

four-fifths

frame shifting (n.), frame-shifting (adj.)

franchiser, franchisee

francophone

freelance (n., adj., v.)

free market, free trade (n., adj.)

Free Trade Agreement (FTA) (between Canada and the United States)

French (n.), French Canadian (n., adj.), French-language (adj.)

fresh water (n.), freshwater (adj.)

friendly — student-friendly, user-friendly

Front de libération du Québec (FLQ)

front-line (adj.)

FTA (Free Trade Agreement) (between Canada and the United States; effective Jan 1, 1988)

fuel, fuelled, fuelling

fulfill, fulfillment

full-time (adj., adv.)

furor

further (used of metaphorical distance: e.g., "she is further ahead than he is in copyediting skills")

furthermore (whole-clause adv.) (preferred to "further" in the sense of moreover or in addition)

 

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G

G7 — Group of Seven (industrialized nations)

G8 — Group of Eight (G7 + Russia)

G20 — Group of Twenty (19 countries + European Union)

GAAP (generally accepted accounting principles)

GAAR (general anti-avoidance rule)

GATS (General Agreement on Trade in Services)

GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)

gauge

gauntlet

gayness

general interest (n., adj.)

ghettos

give-and-take (n., adj.)

Globe and Mail — include The with full n. and in references; omit with adj. (e.g., "the Globe and Mailwebsite")

going private (v.), going-private (adj.)

good faith (n.), good-faith (adj.)

goods and services tax (GST; effective Jan 1, 1991)

goodwill

grantee, grantor

green paper, the Finance green paper

grey, Grey Cup

grievor

gross up (v.), gross-up (n., adj.)

ground — groundbreaking, groundswell, groundwater (n., adj.), groundwork

GST (goods and services tax)

guarantee, guarantor

guaranty (a formal pledge to pay another's debt, or the security for such a pledge)

guideline (LSUC) — the Guidelines, Guideline 1, a guideline, the guideline; in pinpoint citations, Guideline 1 contra McGill

 

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H

habeas corpus

hairsplitting

halfway

handout

health care (n., adj.)

high school (n., adj.)

hijab (rom.)

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), HIV-positive

HL (House of Lords) (UK court)

home ownership, homeowner

home page

Homo sapiens

homogeneous

honorarium, honorary

Honour, Your Honour

honourable

House of Commons, the House

House of Lords (HL) (UK court)

humour, humorous

 

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I

ibidibidem (in the same place) COD: ibid.

i.e. — id est (that is) (used in footnotes, tabular matter, and confined spaces; takes trailing comma)

immovable

impact (n.) (“affect” is preferred as a verb)

impel, impellable

important (used with "more" or "most" as sentence adv.) (preferred to "importantly")

inasmuch as, insofar as

in camera (in private)

includible

incumbent

in depth (adv.), in-depth (adj.)

indexes (in publishing and economics), indices (in mathematics)

indicia (rom.) (indication, evidence)

Indigenous (but use “Aboriginal” in some situations, such as when there’s reference to a specific title [of a journal, book, group, etc.] or certain legal docs — the Constitution uses “Aboriginal peoples,” so Aboriginal title and rights case law still uses that terminology)

indispensable

Individual's Rights Protection Act (Alberta) (repealed in 1996)

inflow

infra (below)

in-house (adj., adv.)

in loco parentis (in the place of a parent)

in personam (concerning the person or personal rights)

inquire, inquiry (preferred to enquire, enquiry)

in re (in the matter of)

in rem (concerning a thing)

in situ (in its natural location)

install, installment

insure (make safe from financial loss through payment to insurance company — not ensure (q.v.))

insured, insurer

inter — interaffiliate, interprovincial

inter alia (among other things)

Internet, the Net

inter pares (between equals)

inter partes (between parties; with both sides represented)

interpretive (preferred to interpretative)

intervener contra COD

inter vivos (between living persons) but inter vivos trust (rom.)

in toto (entirely)

intra — intra-agency, intragenerational, intraregional

intra vires (within the jurisdiction)

ipso facto (by the fact itself; intrinsically)

 

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J

J, JJ (justice(s) or judge(s))

JA, JJA (Appeal Court judge(s); justice(s) of the appellate court)

jailer

Japanese Canadian (n., adj.)

jerry-build (v.), jerry-built (adj.)

jewellery

JP (justice of the peace)

Jr — e.g., Donald Marshall Jr (indexed as Marshall, Donald, Jr) COD: Jr.

Judeo-Christian (with hyphen)

judgment

 

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K

key man (n.), keyman (adj.)

keyword

kilometrage (cf. mileage), kilometre

kirpan (rom.)

know-how (n.)

knowledgeable

Koran — see Quran

Kristallnacht

 

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L

labelled, labelling

lacuna (s.), lacunae (pl.)

laissez-faire (n., adj.)

land claim

landlocked

landowner, landownership, landowning

Latin

lawbreaker, law-breaking

Law Lords

lawmaker, law-making

lawsuit

lay off (v.), layoff (n., adj.)

layperson, laypersons

leadup

left hand (n.), left-hand (adj.), left-handed (adj.)

legislation — full titles of statutes, regulations, charters, conventions, proclamations, protocols, treaties, orders, and directives are italic and capitalized; short titles thereof are roman and capitalized; full and short titles of accords, agreements, manifestos, etc. are roman and capitalized; follow the capitalization style of the source:
• the Anti-Terrorism Act, the Act
• the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Charter
• the Criminal Code, the Code
• the Income Tax Act, the Act
• the Canada–US Automotive Products Agreement, the Autopact
• the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, the Convention
• the Nisga'a Final Agreement, the Agreement
• the North American Air Defence Agreement, NORAD
• the North American Free Trade Agreement, NAFTA
• the Patented Medicines Notice of Compliance Regulations, the PMNOC Regulations
• the Regina Manifesto
• the Royal Proclamation, 1763; the Royal Proclamation, the Proclamation
• the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Treaty
• the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Declaration

Legislative Assembly (Ontario)

legislature, the Ontario legislature

lesbianness

lessee, lessor

level (adj.) — first-level heading

licence (n.), license (v.), licensing (adj.)

licensor, licensee

lieutenant governor in council

life — life cycle, life-giving, lifelong, lifespan, lifestyle, lifetime

lightface

likeable

line — catchline, source line, straightline (accounting), tagline

lineup

lock up (v.); lock-up (n., adj.)

long-standing (adj.) but of long standing

long-term (adj., adv.), but in the long term

look out (v.), lookout (n.)

Lordship (UK HL) — His Lordship, Her Lordship, their Lordships

lower class (n.), lower-class (adj.)

lowercase (adj., v.)

lower court (n., adj.)

LSUC (Law Society of Upper Canada) pinpoint citations contra McGill
By-Laws — the By-Laws, By-Law 1, a by-law, the by-law; in pinpoint citations, By-Law 1
Paralegal Professional Conduct Guidelines — the Guidelines, Guideline 1, a guideline, the guideline; in pinpoint citations, Guideline 1
Paralegal Rules of Conduct — the Rules, Rule 1, a rule, the rule; in pinpoint citations, Rule 1
Rules of Professional Conduct — the Rules, Rule 1, a rule, the rule; in pinpoint citations, Rule 1

lump sum (n.), lump-sum (adj.)

 

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M

M (monsieur) (in French text)

Mlle (mademoiselle) (in French text)

Mme (madame) (in French text)

Mr (sing.), Messrs (pl.) COD: Mr., Messrs.

Mrs, Ms COD: Mrs., Ms.

macroeconomic

Madam (e.g., Madam Justice Bertha Wilson)

make up (v.), makeup (n., adj.)

manoeuvrable, manoeuvre, manoeuvring

Mareva (rom.) (injunction; freezes assets to prevent frustration of a judgment)

the Maritimes, the maritime provinces

mark down (v.), markdown (n., adj.), marked-down (adj.)

mark-to-market (adj.) (accounting method)

mark up (v.), markup (n., adj.), marked-up (adj.)

marketplace

master (judicial officer in civil proceedings); Master Smith; the master

meagre

medallist

medicare (Can.), Medicare (US)

medieval

medium (sing.), media (pl.)

memoranda

mens rea (guilty mind)

Métis

Metropolitan Toronto, Metro

microcredit, microfinance

microeconomic

middle class (n.), middle-class (adj.)

the Middle East, the Mideast (Asia)

the Middle West, the Midwest (US)

mid — midway, mid-1990s

mileage (cf. kilometrage)

mini-budget

Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship McCallum, the minister of immigration, refugees, and citizenship note serial comma; see Titles of Office

Ministry of Labour, the ministry

mistakable

MNR (minister of national revenue — typically encountered in tax cases as either appellant or respondent)

modelled, modelling

moneylender (n.), moneylending (n., adj.)

money-maker

moneys

months — Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, June, July, Aug, Sept, Oct, Nov, Dec COD: abbreviations take periods

Montreal (in English text), Montréal (in French text)

mould (all meanings)

Mountie

movable

MP (member of Parliament; Member of Parliament Smith)

MST (manufacturers' sales tax)

multi — multi-dimensional, multidisciplinary, multijurisdictional, multi-purpose, multi-task, multi-use

multiple choice, multiple-choice (adj.)

My Lord

 

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N

NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) (between Canada, the United States, and Mexico; effective Jan 1, 1994)

naive, naiveté

National Assembly (Quebec)

nationwide

native (n., adj.)

Native American, Native Canadian (n., adj.) — “Indigenous” is preferred; see entry for “Indigenous”

NB — nota bene (note well)

NEER plan (new experimental experience rating plan)

NEL (non-economic loss)

neo — neo-liberal, neo-conservative, but neoclassical

nevertheless

newborn (n., adj.)

New World

New Year's, New Year's Day, New Year's Eve

New York (state or city), New York City

niqab (rom.)

no one

non — nonchalant, noncommittal, non-existent, non-native, non-resident

nonetheless

north — north, the North, Northerners

Northwest Territories

notable

noticeable

numbers (cardinal and ordinal) — write out up to ten in non-technical text; see Numbers

 

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O

O Reg (Ontario Regulation)

obiter dictum, obiter dictum (sing.), obiter dicta (pl.) — comment(s) of a court, made in passing; not binding

obligor

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development)

offence

offeror

off — off guard, offhand, off-limits, offline, offshore, offside, offsite

oil sands

Ojibwe

Old World

one half (n.), one-half (adj.)

on — ongoing, online, onshore, onside, onsite

open-endedness

opposite sex (n.), opposite-sex (adj.)

Opposition, the official Opposition (n.); opposition parties (adj.)

opt out, opting out (v.), opting-out (adj.)

order in council

orient, oriented (v.) (not orientate)

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

OSC (Ontario Securities Commission)

OSFI (Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions)

outflow

over (adv.) — capitalized in headings and titles

over — overage (surplus), over-age (over an age limit) overall, overextend, overreach, overreact, overrepresent

 

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P

p's and q's

pace (by grace of, in deference to)

Pacific Rim (n., adj.)

panellist

paper (part of book or journal)

paperwork

Paralegal Professional Conduct Guidelines (LSUC) — the Guidelines, Guideline 1, a guideline, the guideline; in pinpoint citations, Guideline 1 contra McGill

Paralegal Rules of Conduct (LSUC) — the Rules, Rule 1, a rule, the rule; in pinpoint citations, Rule 1 contra McGill

Parliament, parliamentary

part — intrabook elements (those within the book) are capitalized — e.g., "see Part III, below"; interbook elements (those within any other book) and statutory references are lowercase — e.g., "discussed by Smith in part IV of his treatise", "under part XIII of the Act"

part-time (adj., adv.)

Parti Québécois

partway

passerby, passersby

passim (here and there; throughout a work)

pay — paycheque, payday, payload, payroll

payee, payer

pay equity (n., adj.)

pay off (v.), payoff (n.)

pay stub (n.), paystub (adj.)

per (rom.)

per capita

percent

perk (abbrev. of perquisite)

per se (rom.) (in or by itself, intrinsically) but direct per se liability

personal use (n.), personal-use (adj.)

persona non grata (unacceptable person; unwelcome guest)

"Persons" case (include quotation marks in italics)

phase in (v.), phase-in (n., adj.)

phase out (v.), phase-out (n., adj.)

placeholder

pleaded (preferred to pled)

p.m. — post meridiem (after noon)

PMNOC (Patented Medicines Notice of Compliance)

policyholder

policy-maker, policy-making

post mortem (rom.) (n., adj.)

postjudgment

postmodern

post-secondary

practice (n.), practise (v.)

prairie, prairies (grassland area of western Canada); the Prairie provinces, the Prairies (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta)

pre — pre-1972, preconceive, pre-date, pre-eminent, pre-empt, pre-emptive, pre-exist, preoccupy, preordain, prerequisite, preschool, pre-tax, pre-trial

precede

preclude [from] (to prevent or exclude; to make impossible)

preface (written by the author(s); not necessarily signed; appears after the foreword, if any)

preferable

prejudgment

prerogative

pretense

preventive (preferred to preventative)

prima facie (on the face of it)

primeval

print out (v.), printout (n., adj.)

prioritize (v.) (preferred to priorize)

private sector (n., adj.)

Privy Council

pro bono

pro rata, prorate, proration

proactive

producible

profit sharing (n.), profit-sharing (adj.)

profiting

program, programmed, programming

promissor

proofread

protector

protester

proved beyond a reasonable doubt (standard of proof; proved preferred to proven), but innocent until proven guilty (Charter s 11(d))

provided that (preferred to providing that)

Provincial Court, Provincial Court Judge Smith, the Provincial Court judge

PST (provincial sales tax)

public sector (n., adj.)

 

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Q

QB (Queen's Bench, Court of)

QC (Queen's Counsel)

Qc (Quebec) (used with courts)

QED — quod erat demonstrandum (which was to be proved or shown)

q.v. — quod vide (which see)

quantum meruit (as much as is deserved)

quash (suppress, annul)

quasi (rom.)

Que (Quebec) (used with documents)

Quebec (province), Quebec City (in English text), Québec (in French text)

Quebecker

Québécois

quotable

quotation (n.), quote (v.), quotation marks

Quran

 

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R

r, rr (rule, rules; used with specific references: e.g., r 23)

R (Regina, Rex) (appellant in criminal cases)

rain water (n.), rainwater (adj.)

rateable

ratio, ratio decidendi (the governing legal principle or rule on which a judge's decision in a case is based)

RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police)

RCWC (Royal Commission on Workers' Compensation)

re — rearrange, reconsider, re-create, re-creation (create again), recreation (entertainment), re-elect, re-enact, re-establish, reintegrate, reinvest, re-lend, reorder, reread

realize

rebut, rebuttable

record-keeper, record-keeping (n., adj.)

reducible

referable

regard — with regard to, in regard to, as regards (not in regards to)

regulation — in text, e.g., Regulation 613, Seat Belt Assemblies, the Regulation; in citation, e.g., Seat Belt Assemblies, RRO 1990, Reg 613

regulation (Income Tax Regulations only) — in text, e.g., regulation 6203 of the Income Tax Regulations; in citation, e.g., Income Tax Regulations, CRC, c 945, reg 6203

removable

respect — with respect to, in respect of

respondent (in styles of cause, the name following "v")

Restatement, Restatement (2d) (US directive on contracts)

resumé

reverse engineering (n.), reverse-engineer (v.)

reverse onus (n.), reverse-onus (adj.)

reversible

right hand (n.), right-hand (adj.)

right-of-way (n.)

rigour, rigorous

risk-averse

risk management process

risk-taker (n.), risk-taking (adj.)

role play (n.), role-play (v.), role-playing (n., adj.)

roll over (v.), rollover (n., adj.)

Roman numeral

roman type

roommate

royal assent

Royal Proclamation, 1763; the Royal Proclamation, the Proclamation

RPP (registered pension plan)

RRIF (registered retirement income fund)

RRSP (registered retirement savings plan)

rule (LSUC) — the Rules, Rule 1, a rule, the rule; in pinpoint citations, Rule 1 contra McGill

rule of law (n.), rule-of-law (adj.)

Rules of Professional Conduct (LSUC) — the Rules, Rule 1, a rule, the rule; in pinpoint citations, Rule 1 contra McGill

 

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S

saleable

salt water (n.), saltwater (adj.)

same sex (n.), same-sex (adj.)

Sched. (schedule; used in non-McGill statutory references); Schedule (McGill)

Second Injury and Enhancement Fund (SIEF)

Second World War

second- — second-best, second-class (adj.), second-degree, second-degree murder contra Criminal Code, second-growth, second-guess, second-hand (used), second-last, second-rate, second-run

self — self-conscious, self-consciousness (but unselfconscious, unselfconsciousness), self-defence

Senate, senator, Senator Smith, senatorial

settlor (of a trust)

setoff (n., adj.), set off (v.)

set-up (n., adj.), set up (v.)

shareable

shareholders' agreement

sharia (rom.)

short list (n.), shortlist (v.)

short-lived

short-term (adj., adv.), but in the short term

show cause hearing

show-how (n.)

shrink wrap (n.), shrink-wrap (adj., v.)

[sic] (so, thus) (italic, enclosed in brackets)

sidestep

SIEF (Second Injury and Enhancement Fund)

sizable

skeptical

skillful, skillfulness

sleepwalk

smartphone

so-called (adj.) (that which is so called is not enclosed in quotation marks; e.g., "my so-called life")

socio-economic, socio-political

source line; "Source:" for one source; "Sources:" for more than one source

south — south, the South, Southerners

Speaker of the House, the Speaker

special interest (n., adj.)

Speech from the Throne, Throne Speech

split up (v.), split-up (n., adj.)

St (saint; street) COD: St.

stand-alone

standby (adj.)

stare decisis (principle of precedent: "to stand by things decided")

start up (v.), start-up (n., adj.)

status Indian

status quo (rom.) (the existing state of affairs)

statute-barred

step — stepbrother, stepdaughter, stepfather, stepmother, step-parent, stepsister, stepson

step by step (adv.), step-by-step (adj.)

stop-loss rules

stop-work order

storey (of a building)

storm water (n.), stormwater (adj.)

story (of a narrative)

straightforward

straightline (accounting)

stress (n.) (use of v. to mean emphasize is discouraged)

student-friendly

style(s) of cause (case name(s))

sub — sub-basement, subcategory, subclass, subculture, subfloor, subsection

subject matter

suite — (French) continued (in tables)

sulphur

supersede

supra (above)

supranational

 

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T

T-chart

T-shirt

Table (e.g., Table 3.10)

tagline

take out (v.), takeout (n., adj.)

take over (v.), takeover (n., adj.)

take up (v.), take-up (n., adj.)

targeted

task force

tax — tax-deductible, tax-free

tax avoidance (n.), tax-avoidance (adj.)

taxpayer (n., adj.), taxpaying (adj.)

teamwork

test drive (n.), test-drive (v.)

that — capitalized in headings and titles

theatre

then (as attributive adj., as in "the then prime minister"): avoid by recasting; if not avoided, do not hyphenate

third party (n.), third-party (adj.)

the Third World, a Third World country

threshold

three-dimensional, 3D contra COD

time — time frame, timeline, time out

titleholder (n.), titleholding (adj.)

titles of office — Prime Minister Trudeau, the prime minister; former prime minister Harper, the former prime minister; Chief of Police Saunders, the chief of police; Chief Justice McLachlin, the chief justice, Justice McLachlin (as she then was); the Director; the Queen; the Secretary; the Speaker

tonne (metric ton)

Toronto — amalgamated York, East York, North York, Don Mills, Scarborough, and Etobicoke into present metropolitan form Jan 1, 1998

tortuous (full of twists and bends — not torturous (q.v.))

torturous (causing or involving torture — not tortuous (q.v.))

toward

tradeable

trademark

trade name (n.), trade-name (adj.)

trade off (v.), trade-off (n., adj.)

transferable, transferor, transferee

traveller, travelling

treaty — see legislation

tribunal, the Ontario Rental Housing Tribunal (renamed the Landlord and Tenant Board on Jan 31, 2007)

 

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U

ultra vires (outside jurisdictional powers)

under way

United Kingdom (n.), UK (n., adj.) (spell out noun at first instance)

United Nations (n.), UN (n., adj.), United Nations' (possessive) (spell out noun at first instance)

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNCHR)

United States (n.), US (n., adj.), United States' (possessive) (spell out noun at first instance)

unmistakable

unshakable

up front (adv.), upfront (adj.)

up to date (adv.), up-to-date (adj.)

uppercase (n., adj.)

upper class (n.), upper-class (adj.)

upward

US$ (US dollars, with dollar amount: e.g., US$1.49)

usable

use of force (n., adj. before n.): use of force model

user's guide, user's guides

 

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V

v (versus) (in styles of cause)

vs (versus) (abbreviated only in tabular matter and indexes) COD: vs.

Valmet Oy (in Beloit Canada Ltd v Valmet Oy, an intellectual property case)

valour, valorous

value-added tax (VAT)

verbatim (rom.) (word for word)

versus

vice-president

vice versa (rom.)

videotape

vigour, vigorous

vis-à-vis (rom.)

viva voce (orally: in examination of witnesses)

viz. — videlicet (to wit; namely)

voir dire (see speak) (a hearing to test the admissibility of evidence, conducted with the jury excluded from court)

 

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W

waste water (n.), wastewater (adj.)

WCAT (Workers' Compensation Appeals Tribunal)

WCB ([Ontario] Workers' Compensation Board — as of 1998, WSIB (q.v.)) (in some provinces, Workers [no apostrophe])

web — the Web, web links, web management, webmaster, web page, web services, website, the World Wide Web

weights and measures, imperial — lb, oz, pt, qt, bbl, bu, doz, in, ft, sq ft, sq in, yd, mi, mph contra COD: abbreviations take periods

weights and measures, metric — g, kg, mg, t, L, ml, mm, cm, m, km, km/h, cm2, m2, ha

well-being

well-known rule (but the rule was well known)

well thought out proposal

west — west, the West, Western Canada, the West Coast, the west coast fisheries, Western Europe, Westerners

whistle-blower (n., adj.), whistle-blowing

white-collar (adj.)

white paper, the Finance white paper

wide — wide-ranging, widespread

wi-fi

wilful, wilfulness

wind up (v.), windup (n., adj.)

withhold, withholding, withholdings, withholding tax

work — workbook, workday, workforce, work-in-progress, workload, workplace, workshop, workspace, work team, workweek

world view

world wars — First World War, Second World War, the world war

worldwide

WSIA (Workplace Safety and Insurance Act, 1997)

WSIB (Workplace Safety and Insurance Board — as of 1998, replacing WCB (q.v.))

 

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X-Y-Z

X's and O's

X-acto knife

X axis

X chromosome

year-end

youth (sing., pl.)

zero-rate (v.), zero-rated (adj.), zero-rating (n.)