3-em dash — repeat recurrent authors’ names in bibliographies; do not replace them with 3-em dashes
abbreviations, indefinite articles with — to decide whether to use "a" or "an" with an abbreviation: (1) determine whether the abbreviation is pronounced as a word or as a series of letters; (2) use "a" if the abbreviation begins with a consonant sound and "an" if it begins with a vowel sound (e.g., a MADD campaign, an MBA)
above — usage of “above” and “below” is acceptable to refer readers to later or earlier in the text, even if the part referred to is not on the same page — e.g., “see the discussion above”; the words are technically adverbs so do not place them before a noun (e.g., change instances “the below discussion” to “the discussion below”)
alphabetizing (in case tables) — Entries are alphabetized by party names: first by first party name, then, if necessary, by second party name, then, if necessary, by citation date (disregarding parentheses and brackets on dates). Where both parties are individuals, the case name is presented as in the original citation. Where the first party is a government entity and the second party is an individual, the parties are reversed so that the individual party is listed first. Where the first party is a business or institution and the second party is an individual, the parties may be reversed so that the individual party is listed first: the context of the case table generally is considered (e.g., if the businesses are generally of one kind and the case names are shortened in the text to individual party names). Where the case name is a compound (i.e., where it includes more than a single action or more than two parties and the actions or groups of parties are joined by a semicolon), the first part of the compound name is reversed: see "Martin, Nova Scotia v" below. Procedural wording (e.g., "Re") is reversed. Reversed case names follow non-reversed names. In a reversed case name, a comma follows "v" if the citation year is not in parentheses; no comma follows "v" if the year is in parentheses. See also alphabetizing (in indexes). Fictitious examples:
Adams v MacKenzie, 2000 ONCA 123 Adams Contractors Ltd v Toronto (City), 2001 ONCA 124 British Columbia v BCGSEU, 2002 BCCA 123 British Columbia (Public Service Agency) v BCGSEU, 2003 BCCA 124 Dale v Commercial Union, 2004 SCC 123 D'Amato v Badger, 2005 SCC 124 Jones, R v, 1994 BCCA 123 Jones, R v, 1994 BCSC 123 Martin, Nova Scotia v; Nova Scotia v Laseur, 2006 NSCA 123 Miller v Alabama, 123 US 456 (2007) Miller, Re and Alabama, 123 US 457 (2008) No-Mess Cleaning Co v Manufacturers Life Insurance Co, 2009 MBQB 123 Noma Lighting Ltd v Stevens Design-Build Co, 2010 MBQB 124 Rowe v Unum Life Insurance Co, 2011 BCCA 123 Rowe v Unum Life Insurance Co,  BCJ No 123 (QL) (CA) Rowe v Unum Life Insurance Co, 2011 BCSC 73 Rowe, Unum Life Insurance Co v, 2010 BCSC 456 Wilson v Great-West Life Insurance, 2012 ONCA 123 Wilson, Great-West Life Insurance v, 2011 ONSC 123 Wilson's Trucking Ltd, Pilot Insurance v (2013), 45 OR (3d) 678 (CA)
alphabetizing (in indexes) — Emond uses a word-by-word method of alphabetizing, in which a space comes before a letter. Hyphens and dashes are treated as spaces; commas are treated as terminal (marking the end of the entry; what follows the comma is treated as a new entry). Apostrophes, articles, capitalization, and quotation marks are ignored. The order of precedence is: word, word followed by a comma, word followed by a space. Prepositions are not ignored. Numbers precede letters. Examples:
17th-century philosophy 982376 Ontario Ltd. accommodation acting in good faith acting with civility client consent, and clients, and co-mediation code of conduct contra proferentem contract law Institute for the Study of Conflict Transformation Institute for Tactful Diplomacy lawyer lawyers, unilateral action lawyer's professional code of conduct New, Zoe New Deal Ontario Association for Family Mediation Ontario's mandatory mediation program O'Rourke, P.J. pre-mediation premature settlement saintly conduct smart conduct St John's Ambulance standard conduct value, creation of value-based conflict value conflicts value-negating process
as — in a causal sense, "because" or "since" is preferred
as such — "such" must refer to an antecedent noun or noun phrase; where it is incorrectly used, replace with "as a result," "accordingly," "therefore," etc. (or consider deleting).
CORRECT: Land Titles is a statutory system of land recording and land ownership. As such, it is not bound by the traditional common law system of nemo dat. [The antecedent is "Land Titles."]
INCORRECT: The innocent lender gets a good and indefeasible mortgage even though a fraud is being perpetrated on it. As such, the distinction between immediate indefeasibility and deferred indefeasibility arises only where there has been an identity fraud. [There is no antecedent.]
asterisk — does not have superscript formatting applied (it is already superscript by design)
author names on college covers — no serial comma and "&" rather than "and" (e.g., Diana Collis & Cynthia Forget; Kerry Watkins, Gail Anderson & Vincenzo Rondinelli)
back matter, order of — see Chicago 16th, section 1.4.
Higher ed texts:
|Credits [permission credits]||recto|
below — usage of “above” and “below” is acceptable to refer readers to later or earlier in the text, even if the part referred to is not on the same page — e.g., “see the discussion above”; the words are technically adverbs so do not place them before a noun (e.g., change instances “the below discussion” to “the discussion below”)
cardinal rule — Do no violence. Ignore any rule whose observance would make the verbal expression, readability, or visual presentation ugly or awkward.
case, discussion of — generally past tense ("the court stated," "the court went on to state")
case names, treatment of where parties’ names are undisclosed — Where undisclosed parties’ names are represented by initials, and include one or more parenthetical initials, insert a hard space between the first initial and the parenthetical initial(s). See Case Citations.
I (LR) v T (E)
chapter numbers, style — the style of chapter numbers in running text is usually the same as the style in running heads; e.g., "Chapter 1" in running text and running heads; the style of chapter numbers on chapter opening pages is a matter of design — it may differ from the running text/head format; e.g., "Chapter One"
chapter titles — not enclosed in quotation marks in cross-references — e.g., See Chapter 1, Introduction
CIP data — If CIP data is not available before a book is finished, the copyright page should show (in addition to the usual copyright statement, publisher information, and production credits) the ISBN and the following statement:
The Library and Archives Canada CIP record for this book is available from the publisher on request.
college cover author names — no serial comma and "&" rather than "and" (e.g., Diana Collis & Cynthia Forget; Kerry Watkins, Gail Anderson & Vincenzo Rondinelli)
credits — see permission credits
cross-references, internal—Internal cross-references are capitalized: “See Chapter 1, Introduction to Health Law.” Or “See Figure 7.1.” In texts with numbered headings, the section of the chapter in question is referred to as, e.g., “Section I” or “Section I.A” (not “Part”). Note that cross-references to parts of other publications are lowercase.
different from, different than — "different from" is always preferred when it is followed by a noun; but "different than" can be preferable, esp. when it is followed by a clause ("my ankles look different than they did before" is better than "my ankles look different from the way they looked before"); see cardinal rule
due to — avoid as a prepositional phrase at the beginning of a sentence (e.g., "Due to X, Y was the case"); allow/prefer following a form of the verb "to be" (e.g., "this was due to that"); allow/prefer in the literal sense of owing; otherwise, prefer "because of", "as a result of", "owing to", "for", etc. in e.g. "he was terminated
due to because of his failure to work", "she was terminated due to for drinking on the job"
e-Laws style names — see Concordance: E-Laws Style Names / Emond Tag Names
ebook bookmarks (naming) — e.g., Front Matter (Title page, Copyright, other pages as titled); part and chapter numbers as given in the book (e.g., Part One or Part 1 or Part I; Chapter One or Chapter 1); include "Chapter" even if it is omitted from the print book; punctuation: e.g., Chapter 1: Chapter Title
Edie's birthday — July 12, the traditional deadline for sending casebooks to the printer to be published in time for September classes; after Edith Pike (July 12, 1916 – June 15, 2014)
edition — spelled out on title page and spine; not included in running head
ellipses — Place an ellipsis before a punctuation mark — a period, comma, colon, semicolon, quotation mark, etc. — when the omitted text precedes the punctuation mark. Place an ellipsis after a punctuation mark when the omitted text follows the punctuation mark. Ellipses should have a space before and after them.
 As a matter of procedural fairness, full Stinchcombe-type disclosure is not required at the surrender stage: R. v. Stinchcombe,  3 S.C.R. 326. The Minister must present the fugitive with adequate disclosure of the case against him or her, and with a reasonable opportunity to state his or her case against surrender (Kwok, at paras. 99 and 104), and he must provide sufficient reasons for his decision to surrender (Lake, at para. 46; Kwok, at para. 83). In this case, the Minister complied with these requirements.
 As a matter of procedural fairness, full Stinchcombe-type disclosure is not required at the surrender stage … . The Minister must present the fugitive with adequate disclosure of the case against him or her, and with a reasonable opportunity to state his or her case against surrender … , and he must provide sufficient reasons for his decision to surrender … . In this case, the Minister complied with these requirements.
“Emond Montgomery,” treatment of in references — for publications up to 2015, use “Emond Montgomery”; for those 2016 or later, use “Emond”
emphasis added to quotations — Distinguish between italics in the original and italics that the author adds by putting “emphasis added” or “emphasis in original” after the quotation. If the text uses footnotes, include the note after the reference in the footnote:
R v Smith, 2012 SCC 84 at para 23 (emphasis added).
If the text is in APA style:
a) If the words are part of a block quotation, place them after the terminal punctuation of the quotation in square brackets with closing punctuation within the square brackets. Note capitalization:
It is clear from these facts that the respondents acted in their capacity as regulators and did so in consultation with the beekeeping industry. They did not assume a role outside their regulatory role, though it is alleged in the rest of the statement of claim that they discharged their regulatory responsibilities badly. This distinguishes this case from Imperial Tobacco where the relationship of proximity was found to exist by reason of the additional non-regulatory roles adopted by Canada’s officials. Imperial Tobacco is not the only template for proximity based on a course of conduct but, at the very least, it can be said that these facts do not fit that template. [Emphasis in original.]
b) If the quotation is run-in, use parentheses:
“Quoted Material” (emphasis in original).
If there is emphasis in the original AND the author added emphasis:
The only basis for the imposition of such punishment must be a finding of the commission of an actionable wrong which caused the injury complained of by the plaintiff. [Emphasis in original; underlining added.]
famously — avoid as adv.
for details but for more detail
foreword — written by someone other than the author(s); signed; appears before the preface
for instance, for example — "for example" is preferred
forms, dates on — dates on forms should be realistic. E.g., January 1 is not a realistic date on which a form would be signed because it’s a holiday.
fractions — Fractions are rendered in manuscript as e.g. <frac>1/2</frac> or 5<frac>1/2</frac>. The slash is a regular forward slash (virgule), not a fraction slash (solidus). When the fraction is used with a whole number, the fraction code immediately follows the number; there is no intervening space. Formatting — superscript, subscript — is not used (or if used is removed) in Word. Fractions thus coded are converted to properly formatted fractions on import into InDesign.
front matter — see order below. Note that tables of contents do not have italics applied anywhere, even on case names.
Order of front matter
Higher ed texts:
|(Table of) Contents||v|
|About the Authors||recto|
|Acknowledgments [permission credits]||v|
|About the Authors||recto|
|Summary Table of Contents||recto|
|Detailed Table of Contents||recto|
|Table of Cases||recto|
|Table of Statutes||recto|
furthermore, further (adv.) — Use "furthermore" to modify a whole sentence; use "further" to modify a specific verb (e.g., "Furthermore, the method of termination was discriminatory"; "The court said that … and further stated its view that …").
gender, terms relating to — the term “transgender” is preferred to the terms “transgendered” and “trans(s)exual”
gender-neutral language — Avoid gender bias. There are various methods for doing so; Chicago 16th, section 5.225 provides a helpful list of techniques. One solution is to use “he or she” or to alternate “he” and “she.” Another is to use the plural “they” to replace “he” or “she.” Check with authors for their preference.
impact — use as v. is discouraged; "affect" is preferred
InDesign crash — common cause: import of a tagged text file where either an untagged paragraph or an undefined paragraph tag follows a tagged paragraph defined in InDesign to have a nested style (e.g., <b> until the second tab); solution: tag the paragraph in the txt file or define the paragraph style in InDesign
indexes, cross-references in — The cross-references most commonly used in Emond indexes are “see,” “see under,” “see also,” and “see also under.” Detailed explanations of the rules for their use are set out in Chicago, 16th, sections 16.15 to 16.23.
indexing — See alphabetizing
initials — spaced initials in quoted text retain periods and are closed up (e.g., S. N. Lederman becomes S.N. Lederman); initials in author text omit periods and are closed up (e.g., S. N. Lederman becomes SN Lederman)
judges, reasons for judgment — show the author of the judgment in all caps with <sc> applied (q.v.); show concurring judges in parentheses in normal case with "concurring" at end; where the opinion is dissenting, show "(dissenting)" in its own parentheses; where the court is unanimous, use "The Court"; e.g.:
LYON JA (Monnin JA concurring):
LeBEL and FISH J (McLachlin CJ and Binnie, Deschamps, and Abella JJ concurring):
ARBOUR J (dissenting):
CHARRON J (Major and Bastarache JJ concurring) (dissenting):
judges, titles — “CJC” (chief justice of Canada) is changed to “CJ” in author talk and in extract apparatus (introductory matter and comments) contra McGill
note numbers — (1) In-text note numbers should follow any punctuation marks (except em dashes) and are usually placed outside a closing parenthesis. (2) Two numbers must not appear immediately consecutively, without intervening text. (3) Notes to tables or figures must not be numbered with other notes (table or figure notes must be removed from the body of notes and associated with the table or figure, and, generally, indicated by symbols or superscript letters rather than numbers).
note symbols — * † ‡ § # (repeat and double — ** etc.)
permission credits (text) — in source lines, the format for citing reproduced text is in the reference style of the book (e.g., APA, McGill) unless a specific format is required by the rights holder (e.g., Yale Law Journal); permission statements use the wording provided by the permissions editor
pleaded — preferred to "pled"; per CanLII, "pleaded" occurs much more frequently than "pled" in the SCC and about twice as often as "pled" in other courts; Slaw.ca prefers "pleaded"; Legal Aid Ontario's LawFacts prefers "pled"
preface — written by the author(s); not necessarily signed; appears after the foreword (if any); mention of other publishers' texts is discouraged in college prefaces but allowed in law school and practice prefaces
process, discussion of — generally present tense ("the officer considers"); past tense for outmoded processes and policies ("under the former policy, the officer considered"); present or future tense for proposed processes and policies ("under the new policy, the officer will consider"); the conditional tense is not often required
publisher information — in citations that include the publisher’s name (e.g., in book citations), omit the definite article the, terms that indicate corporate status, and “Publishers,” “Publishing,” etc.
reason why — acceptable usage; "reason that" is not necessarily preferred; sometimes "reason" is better than either alternative (e.g., "This is one of the reasons
that why the trial list must be monitored closely when your case gets near the top.")
reference (v.) — to cite, to provide with citations of (references to) authorities; used of cases and legal instruments ("the case was referenced with approval by the court," "the court referenced the statute," "the agreement referenced the obligation to mitigate," "as referenced in"); for alternatives to incorrect use or overuse, consider "describe," "define," "mention," "represent," and other COD2 definitions of "refer"
regardless of whether [or not] — "or not" is redundant; do not include (or delete)
respectively — precede with comma (e.g., "A and B, respectively")
running heads —
- higher ed with parts: left = part number and title, right = chapter number and title
- higher ed without parts: left = book title and subtitle (without edition), right = chapter number and title
- casebook chapter with section titles: left = chapter number and title; right = prevailing section number and title
- casebook chapter without section titles: left and right = chapter number and title
- chapter example: Chapter 6<em>Contributory Negligence
- section example: III.<en>Reversionary Interest
singular third-person pronoun — see gender-neutral language
stacks, marking (proofreading) — go easy on marking stacks. Only mark stacks if they involve whole words, not partial words. Do not mark stacks of words that are only four letters long or shorter, unless the word is stacked for three lines. Do not mark stacks unless they are perfectly aligned. Most typesetters watch for stacks and eliminating stacked words in short paragraphs is often difficult and comes at the price of more hyphenation and/or creating another stack.
statute, discussion of — generally present tense ("the section states"); past tense for repealed, amended, etc. provisions ("the section originally stated"); present or future tense for proposed provisions ("the proposed section deems," "the new section will deem")
supra, exception — do not use “supra” for legislation—use the abbreviation of the Act name instead if necessary. (Contra McGill.) But if repeating citations helps the reader differentiate Acts with similar names, use “supra” as needed
tables, alignment of data — (1) Align text on the left, or centre text where the text is very brief. (2) Align decimal numbers on the decimal with a decimal tab. (3) Align whole numbers on the right digit with a right tab, or use a centre tab and add en spaces for digits () and quarter spaces for thousands commas () to manually align numbers:
terms (or words) referring to themselves — use italics or quotation marks, but be consistent within a single text. Generally, italics are preferred. E.g., “The term labour law refers to all three regimes that govern employment (common law, regulatory standards law, and collective bargaining law)”
that/which — Observe the distinction and punctuate accordingly. “That” introduces a restrictive or defining clause; “which” introduces a non-restrictive or non-defining clause. A restrictive clause is not set off by commas; a non-restrictive clause is always set off by commas.
Section 123 is the law that Ontario passed to address the problem. The problem, which was unique to Ontario, was addressed by section 123.
Track Changes — use to record editing; turn off for standard cleanup and tagging; turn off when adding or deleting a paragraph return or an automatic footnote/endnote; show to authors if the edits are pinpoint and reasonable; do not show to authors (i.e., accept all) if the edits amount to rewriting
upset at, upset by — use "at" when it is followed by a gerund ("he was upset at losing"); use "by" when it is followed by a noun ("she was upset by the loss")
use/utilize — use is preferred
which/that — Observe the distinction and punctuate accordingly. “That” introduces a restrictive or defining clause; “which” introduces a non-restrictive or non-defining clause. A restrictive clause is not set off by commas; a non-restrictive clause is always set off by commas.