Print

Usage & Practice

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

#

3-em dash — repeat recurrent authors’ names in bibliographies; do not replace them with 3-em dashes

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

A

abbreviations, indefinite articles with — to decide whether to use "a" or "an" with an abbreviation: (1) determine whether the abbreviation is pronounced as a word or as a series of letters; (2) use "a" if the abbreviation begins with a consonant sound and "an" if it begins with a vowel sound (e.g., a MADD campaign, an MBA)

above — do not use as adj. (e.g., "the above discussion"); use "foregoing" or "preceding" instead, or recast (e.g., "the discussion above")

alphabetizing (in case tables) — Entries are alphabetized by party names: first by first party name, then, if necessary, by second party name, then, if necessary, by citation date (disregarding parentheses and brackets on dates). Where both parties are individuals, the case name is presented as in the original citation. Where the first party is a government entity and the second party is an individual, the parties are reversed so that the individual party is listed first. Where the first party is a business or institution and the second party is an individual, the parties may be reversed so that the individual party is listed first: the context of the case table generally is considered (e.g., if the businesses are generally of one kind and the case names are shortened in the text to individual party names). Where the case name is a compound (i.e., where it includes more than a single action or more than two parties and the actions or groups of parties are joined by a semicolon), the first part of the compound name is reversed: see "Martin, Nova Scotia v" below. Procedural wording (e.g., "Re") is reversed. Reversed case names follow non-reversed names. In a reversed case name, a comma follows "v" if the citation year is not in parentheses; no comma follows "v" if the year is in parentheses. See also alphabetizing (in indexes). Fictitious examples:

Adams v MacKenzie, 2000 ONCA 123
Adams Contractors Ltd v Toronto (City), 2001 ONCA 124
British Columbia v BCGSEU, 2002 BCCA 123
British Columbia (Public Service Agency) v BCGSEU, 2003 BCCA 124
Dale v Commercial Union, 2004 SCC 123
D'Amato v Badger, 2005 SCC 124
Jones, R v, 1994 BCCA 123
Jones, R v, 1994 BCSC 123
Martin, Nova Scotia v; Nova Scotia v Laseur, 2006 NSCA 123
Miller v Alabama, 123 US 456 (2007)
Miller, Re and Alabama, 123 US 457 (2008)
No-Mess Cleaning Co v Manufacturers Life Insurance Co, 2009 MBQB 123
Noma Lighting Ltd v Stevens Design-Build Co, 2010 MBQB 124
Rowe v Unum Life Insurance Co, 2011 BCCA 123 
Rowe v Unum Life Insurance Co, [2011] BCJ No 123 (QL) (CA) 
Rowe v Unum Life Insurance Co, 2011 BCSC 73 
Rowe, Unum Life Insurance Co v, 2010 BCSC 456
Wilson v Great-West Life Insurance, 2012 ONCA 123
Wilson, Great-West Life Insurance v, 2011 ONSC 123
Wilson's Trucking Ltd, Pilot Insurance v (2013), 45 OR (3d) 678 (CA)

alphabetizing (in indexes) — Emond uses a word-by-word method of alphabetizing, in which a space comes before a letter. Hyphens and dashes are treated as spaces; commas are treated as terminal (marking the end of the entry; what follows the comma is treated as a new entry). Apostrophes, articles, capitalization, and quotation marks are ignored. The order of precedence is: word, word followed by a comma, word followed by a space. Prepositions are not ignored. Numbers precede letters. Examples:

17th-century philosophy
982376 Ontario Ltd.
accommodation
acting in good faith
acting with civility
client consent, and
clients, and
co-mediation
code of conduct
contra proferentem
contract law 
Institute for the Study of Conflict Transformation
Institute for Tactful Diplomacy
lawyer
lawyers, unilateral action
lawyer's professional code of conduct
New, Zoe
New Deal
Ontario Association for Family Mediation
Ontario's mandatory mediation program
O'Rourke, P.J.
pre-mediation
premature settlement
saintly conduct
smart conduct
St John's Ambulance
standard conduct
value, creation of
value-based conflict
value conflicts
value-negating process

as — in a causal sense, "because" or "since" is preferred

as such — "such" must refer to an antecedent noun or noun phrase; where it is incorrectly used, replace with "as a result," "accordingly," "therefore," etc. (or consider deleting).

CORRECT: Land Titles is a statutory system of land recording and land ownership. As such, it is not bound by the traditional common law system of nemo dat. [The antecedent is "Land Titles."]
INCORRECT: The innocent lender gets a good and indefeasible mortgage even though a fraud is being perpetrated on it. As such, the distinction between immediate indefeasibility and deferred indefeasibility arises only where there has been an identity fraud. [There is no antecedent.]

asterisk — does not have superscript formatting applied (it is already superscript by design)

author names on college covers — no serial comma and "&" rather than "and" (e.g., Diana Collis & Cynthia Forget; Kerry Watkins, Gail Anderson & Vincenzo Rondinelli)

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

B

back matter, order of — see Chicago 16th, section 1.4.
Higher ed texts:

Element Page
Appendix(es) recto
Glossary recto
References recto
Index recto
Credits [permission credits] recto

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

C

cardinal rule — Do no violence. Ignore any rule whose observance would make the verbal expression or visual presentation ugly or awkward.

case, discussion of — generally past tense ("the court stated," "the court went on to state")

case names, treatment of where parties’ names are undisclosed — Where undisclosed parties’ names are represented by initials, and include one or more parenthetical initials, insert a hard space between the first initial and the parenthetical initial(s). See Case Citations.

I (LR) v T (E)

chapter numbers, style — the style of chapter numbers in running text is usually the same as the style in running heads; e.g., "Chapter 1" in running text and running heads; the style of chapter numbers on chapter opening pages is a matter of design — it may differ from the running text/head format; e.g., "Chapter One"

chapter titles — not enclosed in quotation marks in cross-references — e.g., See Chapter 1, Introduction

CIP data — If CIP data is not available before a book is finished, the copyright page should show (in addition to the usual copyright statement, publisher information, and production credits) the ISBN and the following statement:

The Library and Archives Canada CIP record for this book is available from the publisher on request.

college cover author names — no serial comma and "&" rather than "and" (e.g., Diana Collis & Cynthia Forget; Kerry Watkins, Gail Anderson & Vincenzo Rondinelli)

credits — see permission credits; production credits

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

D

different from, different than — "different from" is always preferred when it is followed by a noun; but "different than" can be preferable, esp. when it is followed by a clause ("my ankles look different than they did before" is better than "my ankles look different from the way they looked before"); see cardinal rule

due to — avoid as a prepositional phrase at the beginning of a sentence (e.g., "Due to X, Y was the case"); allow/prefer following a form of the verb "to be" (e.g., "this was due to that"); allow/prefer in the literal sense of owing; otherwise, prefer "because of", "as a result of", "owing to", "for", etc. in e.g. "he was terminated due to because of his failure to work", "she was terminated due to for drinking on the job"

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

E

e-Laws style names — see Concordance: E-Laws Style Names / Emond Tag Names

ebook bookmarks (naming) — e.g., Front Matter (Title page, Copyright, other pages as titled); part and chapter numbers as given in the book (e.g., Part One or Part 1 or Part I; Chapter One or Chapter 1); include "Chapter" even if it is omitted from the print book; punctuation: e.g., Chapter 1: Chapter Title

Edie's birthday — July 12, the traditional deadline for sending casebooks to the printer to be published in time for September classes; after Edith Pike (July 12, 1916 – June 15, 2014)

edition — spelled out on title page and spine; not included in running head

ellipses — Place an ellipsis before a punctuation mark — a period, comma, colon, semicolon, quotation mark, etc. — when the omitted text precedes the punctuation mark. Place an ellipsis after a punctuation mark when the omitted text follows the punctuation mark.

Original

[30] As a matter of procedural fairness, full Stinchcombe-type disclosure is not required at the surrender stage: R. v. Stinchcombe, [1991] 3 S.C.R. 326. The Minister must present the fugitive with adequate disclosure of the case against him or her, and with a reasonable opportunity to state his or her case against surrender (Kwok, at paras. 99 and 104), and he must provide sufficient reasons for his decision to surrender (Lake, at para. 46; Kwok, at para. 83). In this case, the Minister complied with these requirements.

Edited

[30] As a matter of procedural fairness, full Stinchcombe-type disclosure is not required at the surrender stage … . The Minister must present the fugitive with adequate disclosure of the case against him or her, and with a reasonable opportunity to state his or her case against surrender … , and he must provide sufficient reasons for his decision to surrender … . In this case, the Minister complied with these requirements.

“Emond Montgomery,” treatment of in references — for publications up to 2015, use “Emond Montgomery”; for those 2016 or later, use “Emond”

emphasis added to quotations — If the words “emphasis added” are part of the original quotation, present them as the original quotation presents them. If they are author interpolation—that is, if the chapter author has added the emphasis—and they are in a run-in quotation, place them in parentheses within the closing punctuation. Note lowercase:

“Quoted material” (emphasis added).

If the words are part of a block quotation, place them after the closing parentheses in square brackets with closing punctuation within the square brackets. Note capitalization:

“Quoted Material.” [Emphasis added.]

If there is emphasis in the original AND the author added emphasis:

Original (block quotation examples)

The only basis for the imposition of such punishment must be a finding of the commission of an actionable wrong which caused the injury complained of by the plaintiff. [Emphasis in original.]

Edited (1 layer of emphasis)

The only basis for the imposition of such punishment must be a finding of the commission of an actionable wrong which caused the injury complained of by the plaintiff. [Emphasis in original.]

Edited (2 layers of emphasis)

The only basis for the imposition of such punishment must be a finding of the commission of an actionable wrong which caused the injury complained of by the plaintiff. [Emphasis in original; underlining added.]

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

F

famously — avoid as adv.

for details but for more detail

foreword — written by someone other than the author(s); signed; appears before the preface

for instance, for example — "for example" is preferred

fractions — Fractions are rendered in manuscript as e.g. <frac>1/2</frac> or 5<frac>1/2</frac>. The slash is a regular forward slash (virgule), not a fraction slash (solidus). When the fraction is used with a whole number, the fraction code immediately follows the number; there is no intervening space. Formatting — superscript, subscript — is not used (or if used is removed) in Word. Fractions thus coded are converted to properly formatted fractions on import into InDesign.

front matter, order of — see Chicago 16th, section 1.4.
Higher ed texts:

Element Page
Title page i
Copyright page ii
Dedication iii
(Table of) Contents v
Foreword recto
Preface recto
Acknowledgments [personal] recto
About the Authors recto

Casebooks:

Element Page
Title page i
Copyright page ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgments [permission credits] v
Preface recto
About the Authors recto
Summary Table of Contents recto
Detailed Table of Contents recto
Table of Cases recto
Table of Statutes recto

furthermore, further (adv.) — Use "furthermore" to modify a whole sentence; use "further" to modify a specific verb (e.g., "Furthermore, the method of termination was discriminatory"; "The court said that … and further stated its view that …").

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

G

gender, terms relating to — the term “transgender” is preferred to the terms “transgendered” and “trans(s)exual”

gender-neutral language — Avoid gender bias. There are various methods for doing so; Chicago 16th, section 5.225 provides a helpful list of techniques. One solution is to use “he or she” or to alternate “he” and “she.” Another is to use the plural “they” to replace “he” or “she.” Check with authors for their preference.

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

H

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

I

impact — use as v. is discouraged; "affect" is preferred

InDesign crash — common cause: import of a tagged text file where either an untagged paragraph or an undefined paragraph tag follows a tagged paragraph defined in InDesign to have a nested style (e.g., <b> until the second tab); solution: tag the paragraph in the txt file or define the paragraph style in InDesign

indexes, cross-references in — The cross-references most commonly used in Emond indexes are “see,” “see under,” “see also,” and “see also under.” Detailed explanations of the rules for their use are set out in Chicago, 16th, sections 16.15 to 16.23.

indexing — See alphabetizing

initials — spaced initials in quoted text retain periods and are closed up (e.g., S. N. Lederman becomes S.N. Lederman); initials in author text omit periods and are closed up (e.g., S. N. Lederman becomes SN Lederman)

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

J

judges, reasons for judgment — show the author of the judgment in all caps with <sc> applied (q.v.); show concurring judges in parentheses in normal case with "concurring" at end; where the opinion is dissenting, show "(dissenting)" in its own parentheses; where the court is unanimous, use "The Court"; e.g.:

LYON JA (Monnin JA concurring):
LeBEL and FISH J (McLachlin CJ and Binnie, Deschamps, and Abella JJ concurring):
ARBOUR J (dissenting):
CHARRON J (Major and Bastarache JJ concurring) (dissenting):
THE COURT:

judges, reasons for judgment, small caps — use small caps; where a name includes an additional capital letter following one or more lowercase letters (e.g., MacKay), leave the lowercase letter(s) lowercase

judges, titles — “CJC” (chief justice of Canada) is changed to “CJ” in author talk and in extract apparatus (introductory matter and comments) contra McGill

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

K

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

L

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

M

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

N

note numbers — (1) In-text note numbers should follow any punctuation marks (except em dashes) and are usually placed outside a closing parenthesis. (2) Two numbers must not appear immediately consecutively, without intervening text. (3) Notes to tables or figures must not be numbered with other notes (table or figure notes must be removed from the body of notes and associated with the table or figure, and, generally, indicated by symbols or superscript letters rather than numbers).

note symbols — *   †   ‡   §   # (repeat and double — ** etc.)

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

O

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

P

permission credits (text) — in source lines, the format for citing reproduced text is in the reference style of the book (e.g., APA, McGill) unless a specific format is required by the rights holder (e.g., Yale Law Journal); permission statements use the wording provided by the permissions editor

pleaded — preferred to "pled"; per CanLII, "pleaded" occurs much more frequently than "pled" in the SCC and about twice as often as "pled" in other courts; Slaw.ca prefers "pleaded"; Legal Aid Ontario's LawFacts prefers "pled"

preface — written by the author(s); not necessarily signed; appears after the foreword (if any); mention of other publishers' texts is discouraged in college prefaces but allowed in law school and practice prefaces

process, discussion of — generally present tense ("the officer considers"); past tense for outmoded processes and policies ("under the former policy, the officer considered"); present or future tense for proposed processes and policies ("under the new policy, the officer will consider"); the conditional tense is not often required

 

publisher information — in citations that include the publisher’s name (e.g., in book citations), omit the definite article the, terms that indicate corporate status, and “Publishers,” “Publishing,” etc.

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

Q

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

R

reason why — acceptable usage; "reason that" is not necessarily preferred; sometimes "reason" is better than either alternative (e.g., "This is one of the reasons  that   why  the trial list must be monitored closely when your case gets near the top.")

reference (v.) — to cite, to provide with citations of (references to) authorities; used of cases and legal instruments ("the case was referenced with approval by the court," "the court referenced the statute," "the agreement referenced the obligation to mitigate," "as referenced in"); for alternatives to incorrect use or overuse, consider "describe," "define," "mention," "represent," and other COD2 definitions of "refer"

regardless of whether [or not] — "or not" is redundant; do not include (or delete)

respectively — precede with comma (e.g., "A and B, respectively")

running heads

  • higher ed with parts: left = part number and title, right = chapter number and title
  • higher ed without parts: left = book title and subtitle (without edition), right = chapter number and title
  • casebook chapter with section titles: left = chapter number and title; right = prevailing section number and title
  • casebook chapter without section titles: left and right = chapter number and title
  • chapter example: Chapter 6<em>Contributory Negligence
  • section example: III.<en>Reversionary Interest

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

S

singular third-person pronoun — see gender-neutral language

statute, discussion of — generally present tense ("the section states"); past tense for repealed, amended, etc. provisions ("the section originally stated"); present or future tense for proposed provisions ("the proposed section deems," "the new section will deem")

supra, exception — do not use for legislation when similar acts with similar names but from different jurisdictions are cited in batches; repeating citations helps the reader differentiate/identify the acts and jurisdictions

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

T

tables, alignment of data — (1) Align text on the left, or centre text where the text is very brief. (2) Align decimal numbers on the decimal with a decimal tab. (3) Align whole numbers on the right digit with a right tab, or use a centre tab and add en spaces for digits () and quarter spaces for thousands commas () to manually align numbers:

terms (or words) referring to themselves — use italics or quotation marks, but be consistent within a single text. Generally, italics are preferred. E.g., “The term labour law refers to all three regimes that govern employment (common law, regulatory standards law, and collective bargaining law)”

that/which — Observe the distinction and punctuate accordingly. “That” introduces a restrictive or defining clause; “which” introduces a non-restrictive or non-defining clause. A restrictive clause is not set off by commas; a non-restrictive clause is always set off by commas.

Section 123 is the law that Ontario passed to address the problem.
The problem, which was unique to Ontario, was addressed by section 123.

Track Changes — use to record editing; turn off for standard cleanup and tagging; turn off when adding or deleting a paragraph return or an automatic footnote/endnote; show to authors if the edits are pinpoint and reasonable; do not show to authors (i.e., accept all) if the edits amount to rewriting

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

U

upset at, upset by — use "at" when it is followed by a gerund ("he was upset at losing"); use "by" when it is followed by a noun ("she was upset by the loss")

use/utilizeuse is preferred

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   V   W   X   Y   Z 

V

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z 

W

which/that — Observe the distinction and punctuate accordingly. “That” introduces a restrictive or defining clause; “which” introduces a non-restrictive or non-defining clause. A restrictive clause is not set off by commas; a non-restrictive clause is always set off by commas.

 

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X  Y  Z 

X-Y-Z