Cardinal and ordinal numbers up to ten are written out in non-technical text.
The ten players were suspended.
The tenth player was suspended.
Numbers that begin a sentence are spelled out.
Seventeen reasons exist for this.
Figures are used for cardinal and ordinal numbers greater than 10; for references to book elements (e.g., parts, chapters, footnotes, tables, and figures); and for all clock times, dates, percentages, decimals, statistics, weights and measures, currency, and mathematical terms. Non-technical numbers less than 11 that are grouped for comparison with numbers greater than 10 are written as figures (as in this paragraph).
This question is explored in Chapter 6.
The break-and-enter occurred between 9 p.m. and 4 a.m.
There are 17 reasons for this.
In the 17th century things were different.
The rule applies to the first 6 months and the last 36 months.
The 1st and 12th items on the list.
In 1971, the sales tax rate was 5 percent in Ontario and 8 percent in Quebec.
The dispute centred on a 2-foot discrepancy between the surveyor's plan and the fenced boundary.
Ordinals are spelled out as follows. Note that letters are lining; they are not superscripted.
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th ... 21st, 22nd, 23rd ...
Exception: Case reporter series use 2d and 3d.
In general, use commas between groups of three digits in most figures of 1,000 or more. However, no commas are used in the following numbers.
serial number 295728590
binary digit 011001001
temperature 2071 °C
acoustic frequency 2000 Hz
Use of en dashes or hyphens in inclusive numbers (data, dates, etc.) follows the inclusive page number style of the work.
Inclusive dates that refer to complete calendar years include all figures.
Inclusive dates that refer to fiscal and school years and other two-year periods omit the first two digits of the second number (or the first three digits where the first two are zeroes).
the 1989-90 academic year
the 2001-2 taxation year
the government's budget for 2010-11
Inclusive Page Numbers
There are two styles of inclusive page numbers: general style and legal style. General style is used in works that follow APA or Chicago reference style. Legal style is used in works that follow McGill reference style.
General (APA/Chicago) Style
Include all numbers. Use en dashes.
Legal (McGill) Style
For numbers below 100 (and where the first number is less than 100 and the second number is greater than 100), use all numbers. Use hyphens.
For numbers between 100 and 109 (or 200 and 209, 300 and 309, ... 1000 and 1009, 1100 and 1109 ...), use only the final digit in the second number.
For numbers greater than 109 (or 209, 309 ... 1009, 1109 ...), use the final two digits in the second number.
For numbers less than 1000, use all three digits in the second number if the hundreds digit changes.
For numbers greater than 1000, use all four digits in the second number if the hundreds digit or the thousands digit changes.
Plurals of numbers in a general sense may be written out.
Most workers plan to retire in their sixties.
In more specific usage (e.g., references to decades), an "s" follows the final digit (with no apostrophe). Abbreviations of decades are preceded by an apostrophe.
The 1980s was the decade of greed.
The temperature was in the 20s.
The market bottomed out in the '30s.
Part numbers (coded <PN>) are expressed in Roman numerals: I, II, III.
Chapter numbers (tagged <CN>) are expressed in Arabic numerals: 1, 2, 3.
Exception: Design preferences, whether inherited or invented, may prescribe that part or chapter numbers be spelled out (e.g., chapter numbers in casebooks typically are spelled out).
Note numbers follow all punctuation marks except an em dash, and are usually placed outside a closing parenthesis.
Two note numbers must not appear in immediate sequence (e.g., 13,14). If they do, combine them into one note.
Notes to tables or figures are not numbered in sequence with notes to text. They are generally set as superscript letters in alphabetical sequence or as note symbols in the sequence *, †, ‡, §, #. The order of the note placement follows the English reading pattern: left to right, top to bottom.
Distinguish between numbers with adjectives and possessive numbers with nouns.
Numbers with an adjective take no apostrophe; the number modifies the adjective that follows. Examples:
three months pregnant
four hours late
five feet tall
Possessive numbers with a noun take an apostrophe; the apostrophe can be replaced with "of." Examples:
six days' time
seven months' probation
eight years' experience
Generally, use symbols for currency units. Use words in casual or colloquial contexts. Amounts usually take singular verb.
The company earned $15 million (£7.86 million) last year.
I'd buy that for a dollar.
Last year, $15 million was spent on improvements.
Where it is necessary to distinguish or emphasize dollar amounts by national jurisdiction, use the following country abbreviations with the dollar symbol:
Canadian dollars: Cdn$100
US dollars: US$100
Australian dollars: A$100
New Zealand dollars: NZ$100
ISO 4217 currency codes, if used, should be used for all amounts. A space separates the currency code from the currency amount:
Canadian dollars: CAD 100
US dollars: USD 100
Australian dollars: AUD 100
New Zealand dollars: NZD 100