Block Quotations vs Run-In Quotations 

Block Quotations

Quoted material that is roughly more than 40 words or 3 typeset lines should be set off from running text. Quoted material is not enclosed in double quotation marks.

For a discussion of footnote number placement in quotations, see the McGill with Footnotes page.


Obvious typographical errors are silently corrected (e.g., "statuatory" is changed to "statutory").

Grammatical or factual errors may be noted by the insertion of [sic] following the error.

Conceptual or ideological "errors" are not noted by the insertion of [sic]. For example, the use in quoted material of masculine nouns or pronouns, where masculine and feminine terms or genderless terms might be used instead, is not considered an error.

Note: the decision to insert [sic] is the author's.

Imposition of House Style 

Emond imposes house style on quoted material in the following areas:

  • Standardize punctuation around quotation marks (e.g., put periods and commas inside quotation marks)
  • Convert single quotation marks to double, where appropriate, and vice versa
  • Update use of en dashes em dashes where house style does so
  • If the use of italics on case names, statute names, Latin terms, book titles, etc. is inconsistent, standardized per the quotation's prevailing style
  • Standardize the introduction of judicial decisions in format and punctuation
    (e.g., "Smith, J.A. (Orally):—This case ..." is changed to "SMITH JA (orally): This case ...)"
  • Standardize the use of ellipses and bullets (i.e., display ellipses); ellipses are used for inline omissions, while bullets (<BULL>•<en>•<en>•) are used, offset and centred, to indicate the omission of one or more paragraphs
  • authorial interpolations (enclosed in square brackets within the quotation) are edited to conform to house and reference style
  • Although periods are removed from abbreviations in the titles of works in the citation proper, do not remove periods from abbreviations in the quotation itself.


Omissions from quoted material are indicated by an ellipsis (...). The ellipsis is not enclosed in square brackets, and is preceded and followed by a space. An ellipsis includes any omitted text: punctuation, words, in-text citations, paragraph breaks, even chapter breaks.

When the quoted material comprises two or more paragraphs and there is text omitted between the paragraphs, only one ellipsis is used and it is placed at the end of the first paragraph, even if the following paragraph, as quoted, does not begin where the original paragraph begins.

For information on the placement of ellipses in relation to punctuation marks, see the ellipses entry under Usage & Practice.

N.B. In casebooks, centred, spaced bullets (<BULL>•<en>•<en>•) are used to indicate the omission of one or more paragraphs. The presence of author interpolations does not obviate the need for bullet ellipses.


Please find attached guidelines to assist you in preparing your manuscript. Some authors are preparing a separate text and workbook. Others are preparing an integrated text/workbook.
We anticipate that most authors will use their teaching notes as the basis of their manuscript. Some authors, however, will incorporate material published by other authors. We are happy to receive either kind of manuscript.


Please find attached guidelines to assist you in preparing your manuscript. ...
Some authors ... will incorporate material published by other authors. We are happy to receive [your] kind of manuscript.

Ellipses in Original 

When there are ellipses in the original, indicate this with a note at the end of the quotation: “[Ellipses in original.]”

Footnotes Omitted or Integrated 

When footnotes are omitted from a quotation, indicate this at the end of the quotation with “[footnotes omitted].” Or put the note “(footnotes omitted)” after the CIT line in casebooks.

13   Supra note 9 at 85 [footnotes omitted].

When the author wants to include the footnotes from the original, quoted material, then those footnotes are placed in square brackets within the quotation. No need to place the footnotes in square brackets in the footnote section of the text.

Emphasis in Original or Added

If emphasis is added to a quotation, via italics, or is in the original quotation, add "(emphasis added)" or "(emphasis in original)" to the end of the citation in the footnote.

R v Smith, 2012 SCC 84 at para 23 (emphasis added).

If there is no citation, or the text does not use footnotes, added it in brackets or parentheses after the quotation.

It is clear from these facts that the respondents acted in their capacity as regulators and did so in consultation with the beekeeping industry. They did not assume a role outside their regulatory role, though it is alleged in the rest of the statement of claim that they discharged their regulatory responsibilities badly. This distinguishes this case from Imperial Tobacco where the relationship of proximity was found to exist by reason of the additional non-regulatory roles adopted by Canada’s officials. Imperial Tobacco is not the only template for proximity based on a course of conduct but, at the very least, it can be said that these facts do not fit that template. [Emphasis in original.]
However, section 2(3) talks about the “individual nature” of the crime (emphasis in original).

Grammatically Incomplete Sentences 

Where the quoted material is grammatically incomplete and is meant to remain incomplete, use an ellipsis at the end of the quotation to signal incompletion. Use three ellipsis points if the author's sentence continues; use four ellipsis points if the author's sentence ends with the incomplete quotation.

The first paragraph of your letter should begin with the words "We are the solicitors ..." and the second paragraph should state the issue.
The first paragraph of your letter should begin with the words "We are the solicitors...." The second paragraph should state the issue.

Authorial and Editorial Changes 

Authorial and editorial changes, comments, and interpolations are enclosed in square brackets.

The defendant [Mr Brown] did not say.

If the first word following an ellipsis is lowercase in the original manuscript but is edited to be understood as the first word of a new sentence, the first letter of the word is capitalized and enclosed in square brackets.

He did not say where he was staying. ... [T]here was no way to tell where he was staying.