Most casebooks dispense with footnotes. Below are examples of how to integrate citations into the running text.
1. Citation simply embedded in the text:
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Part I of the Constitution Act, 1982, being Schedule B to the Canada Act 1982 (UK), c 11, usually referred to simply as “the Charter,” places limits on the criminal law.
2. Citation given at the end of the paragraph with an introductory phrase:
... provide reparation to the community and victims for the crime. On sentencing see Allan Manson et al, Sentencing and Penal Policy in Canada: Cases, Material, and Commentary, 3rd ed (Toronto: Emond, 2016).
3. If a citation is needed at the end of a paragraph or sentence and there is no introductory phrase, you can simply introduce it with a colon.
In the context of solicitors misaddressing a letter to a client informing him of a deportation hearing, the House of Lords in 1990 held that there was no basis for intervention when a deportation order was made in the client’s absence: Al-Mehdawi v Secretary of State for the Home Department,  AC 876 (CA and HL (Eng)).
4. List all authors in the first instance of citing; if the work is to be cited again, create a short form, and list it in square brackets at the end of the citation.
Allan Manson, Patricia MacLachlan & Lloyd Bridges, Sentencing and Penal Policy in Canada: Cases, Material, and Commentary, 3rd ed (Toronto: Emond, 2016) [Manson et al].
Case and Journal Extracts
Case and journal extracts are coded as shown below. If paragraph numbers do not accompany the paragraphs, the paragraph or page numbers extracted should be stated after the citation.
<HEX>Bernard J Hibbitts, “A Bridle for Leviathan: The Supreme Court and the Board of Commerce” <CIT>(1989) 21 Ottawa L Rev 65 at 67-72
Cleanup of Extracts
Extracted material in casebooks is edited as described in Errors and Imposition of House Style. Note especially that the reference style of the original material is not edited to conform to McGill style.
Omissions are indicated using ellipses for omissions of part of a paragraph and centred bullets for whole paragraphs. More in the Quotations section, under Omissions.
First-level headings are coded “<ST>” and referred to as “Section.” Internal cross-references refer to, e.g., “Section IV.A”.
“Supra” and “infra” are never used in in-text references; always use “above” and “below” in in-text material.