Capitalization of Headings 

All nouns, pronouns, verbs, verb compounds, adverbs, and adjectives are capitalized. Prepositions and conjunctions of five or more letters are capitalized.

Exception: "That" is always capitalized.

The last word in a heading is capitalized, even if it would be lowercase if it occupied a different position in the heading.

Note that "not" is an adverb and is capitalized.

Capitalization of Compound Terms and Prefixes 

Where a heading contains hyphenated compound terms, the first letter of each element in the compound is capitalized, except short prepositions, articles, and coordinate conjunctions.

Where a hyphenated compound term consists of a prefix and a term, capitalize both the prefix and the term.

Exception: Terms where the prefix ends with “e” and the following word begins with “e”—e.g., Pre-eminent, Pre-existing, Re-enact, Re-examine BUT Non-Enumerated.

Newsletter Headings 

The first letter of the first word is capitalized; the remaining words, aside from proper nouns and adjectives, are lowercase. Proper nouns and adjectives retain their capitalization.

The first word following a caesura (e.g., a colon) is capitalized.

Where a newsletter article is divided over two or more issues, the part number of the article is expressed as an Arabic numeral (e.g., 1, 2).

Punctuation in Headings 

Caesuras (breaks or interruptions) are indicated with a colon. If a heading contains two caesuras, the second is marked with an em dash.

Italics in headings are NOT applied, even on case names.

Italics in tables of contents are NOT applied, even on case names.

Examples of Capitalization and Punctuation 

Plan to Be Implemented
What Does the Plan Consist Of?
Old Plan That Is Not in Effect
Deferred Profit-Sharing Plan
Cost-of-Living Allowances
By-the-Book Accounting
E-Commerce Transactions Under the Act
Pre-existing Conditions
Pre-Trial Motions
Re-establishing a Plan for Which Approval Has Been Lost
The 1994 Rules: A New Regime with Teeth
The 1994 Rules: A New Regime with Teeth—How to Prepare for It

Numbering of Headings 

Casebooks and professional titles use numbered headings per the scheme set out below.


<ST> I., II., III., etc.
<H1> A., B., C., etc.
<H2> 1., 2., 3., etc.
<H3> a., b., c., etc.
<H4> i., ii., iii., etc.

Practice (Professional) Titles

<H1> I., II., III., etc.
<H2> A., B., C., etc.
<H3> 1., 2., 3., etc.
<H4> a., b., c., etc.
<H5> i., ii., iii., etc.

In layout, an en space separates the head number from the text of the heading.

Tables of contents are set to align on the decimal and to hang.

Headings in Quotations and References 

Headings in quotations and extracts are capitalized according to the rules set out above, but punctuation is not edited.

Titles of works in references are capitalized according to the rules of the reference style being used. In all reference styles, original punctuation of the titles of works is preserved.