Serial commas are used.

Tom, Dick, and Harry

Exception: On college covers, no serial comma is used with three or more author names (e.g., Kerry Watkins, Gail Anderson & Vincenzo Rondinelli).

A comma does not separate a person's name and a suffix that is part of the name or that forms a proper title.

Bill Smith Jr
William Tilleman III
Dickson CJ

A comma separates a person's name and a degree or honorary designation.

Bill Smith, BA, LLB, LLM
Roger Tassé, QC, OC
John Lennon, OBE

Periods and commas go inside quotation marks. All other punctuation marks (semicolons, colons, question marks, exclamation marks, dashes) generally go outside quotation marks.

The time of day affects "mood."
"Mood," in other words, is affected by the time of day.
A sensitive thing is "mood"; it is affected by the time of day.
Do you believe the time of day affects one's "mood"?

Exception: Punctuation goes outside the quoted name of a ship.

In Sunrise Co Ltd v The "Lake Winnipeg", [1991] 1 SCR 3, the court ruled that … .

No comma is used following a restrictive element unless the syntax of the sentence requires it. In the following examples, “2016,” “Ontario,” “RSO 1990, c B.16,” and “[1986] 1 SCR 103” are the restrictive elements.

It was on January 12, 2016 that a child was born in Toronto, Ontario to happy parents.
It was on January 12, 2016, a day I will always remember, that I returned to Toronto, Ontario, the city of my birth, to meet my long-lost brother.
Section 23 of the Business Corporations Act, RSO 1990, c B.16 provides that shares may be issued at such time as the directors may determine.
R v Oakes, [1986] 1 SCR 103, a landmark case, was decided by the Supreme Court of Canada.


Em Dashes

An em dash is represented by two hyphens (--) or by an em dash (—).

The time of day—that is, morning, noon, or night—affects mood.

En Dashes

An en dash is used in paired opposites.

Canada–US tax treaty
cost–benefit analysis
federal–provincial arrangement
landlord–tenant agreement
male–female relations
parent–child bond
price–earnings ratio

An en dash is used as the prefix of second-level unordered list items. See Lists.

An en dash is used in court judgments and sports scores; a colon is used in proportions.

The court upheld the conviction in a 2–1 decision.
The Montreal Canadiens defeated the Toronto Maple Leafs 3–2 in overtime.
The ratio of water to rum in grog is 4:1.


Use lowercase after a colon unless the colon is followed by two or more sentences that directly follow from the introductory clause before the colon, and unless the colon introduces speech or a quotation. In these cases, capitalize the first word after the colon.

The common law test for excluding evidence under section 24(2) has three elements: The first is assessing the seriousness of the Charter violation. The second relates to the impact of the violation on the accused person’s protected interests. The third is about the societal interest in adjudication on the merits of the case.
In the commercial setting, if both parties are aware of the clause, an automatic renewal clause is enforceable:
Although the automatic renewal clause may seem onerous or unfair in hindsight, it is what was agreed to by the parties.

Parentheses and Square Brackets 

Use parentheses (round brackets) in all references to statutory provisions, even when the references are themselves enclosed in parentheses.

Use of this method is provided for in section 123(4) (and in related provisions, such as section 124(2)).

In other cases where it is necessary to use brackets within brackets, square brackets are enclosed within parentheses.

The method (spelled out in regulations to the Occupational Health and Safety Act [OHSA]) is recommended for all new projects.

Parentheses and brackets in case citations that are themselves enclosed in parentheses or brackets are not changed.

The court referred to Ewanchuk ([1999] 1 SCR 330) and Humaid ((2006), 81 OR (3d) 456 (CA)).

Square brackets are also used to set off authors' and editors' interjections or alterations in quoted material. See Quotations (Authorial and Editorial Changes).

Quotation Marks 

When the text refers to word(s) or terms as “words or terms,” put quotation marks around the word(s) or terms.

The term “cannabis” is preferred in legislation to “marijuana.”

Avoid unnecessary proliferation of quotation marks. Remove quotation marks used for emphasis or quotation marks around terms that are not being discussed as terms.

For notes on quotations themselves, see the page on quotations.